Journal of Geodetic Science (JGS) is an international journal devoted to the rapid publication of works of wide significance, originality and relevance in all areas of Geodesy. JGS reflects the full breadth of research in theoretical and applied Geodesy, represented by diverse sections: Physical Geodesy, Mathematical Geodesy, Satellite Geodesy, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Geodesy and gravimetry, Deformation analysis, Geodetic Networks, Surveying Engineering, Space and Planetary Geodesy, Geodynamics, numerical algorithms and software and other related fields to Geodesy Our central goal is to serve as a broad-spectrum platform for exchanging ideas, and to facilitate collaboration among researchers from different countries. The journal accommodates a variety of exposition styles and formats to help scientists with diverse backgrounds interact seamlessly. 2. Criteria for Publication The primary criteria for judging the acceptability of a manuscript are: its originality, scientific importance and interest to a general geodetic audience. See our Editorial policy for more details. 3. Publication Formats JGS considers submissions of (see Publication formats for further details): Research Articles Communications and Rapid Communications* Reviews and Mini-Reviews Commentaries Letters to the Editor Erratum Corrigendum Addendum Retraction * Rapid Communications are intended to present new information of exceptional novelty and exciting results of significant interest to the readers. Authors are asked to provide an explanation in the cover letter why their contribution should be handled via rapid channel. 4. Electronic Submission All submissions to JGS must be made electronically via the Editool - an online submission and peer review system (detailed instructions for submission can be found on the Editool website). First-time users must create an Author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. All manuscripts receive individual identification codes upon submission that should be used in any correspondence with regard to the publication process. If you experience difficulties with the manuscript submission Web site, please contact the Managing Editor.
All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its
publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters
pertaining to publication. The corresponding author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process.
5. Electronic Formats Allowed We accept submission of text, tables and figures as separate files or as a composite file. For your initial submission, we recommend you upload your entire manuscript, including tables and figures, as a single PDF file. If you are invited to submit a revised manuscript, please provide us with individual files: an editable text and publication-quality figures. Text files can be submitted in the following formats: MS Word - standard DOCUMENT (.DOC); PDF (not applicable for re-submitted or accepted manuscripts, see below) Tables should be submitted as MS Word. Note that a straight Excel file is not an acceptable format Graphics files can be submitted in any of the following graphic formats: EPS; BMP; JPG; TIFF; GIF or PDF. Note that Powerpoint files are not accepted
Authors should clearly indicate location of tables and figures in the text if these elements are given separately or at the end of the manuscript. If this information is not provided to the editorial office, we will assume that they should be left at the end of the text. Any articles that have been prepared in LaTeX will be accepted for review, but only in PDF format. Post acceptance, text files of the revised manuscript and tables are required for use in the production. Macintosh users are advised to add the correct three-letter filename suffix. 6. First-Time Submission of Articles It is important that authors include a cover letter with their manuscript. Please explain why you consider your manuscript as suitable for publication in JGS, why will your paper inspire the other members of your field, and how will it drive research forward. The letter should contain all important details such as:
your full name (submitted by) full title of article and short title full list of authors with affiliations e-mail of the corresponding author contact address, telephone/fax numbers of the corresponding author number of attached files, if there is more than one status: new, reviewed or accepted (with reference ID if reviewed or accepted) area of Geodesy you would like to submit your manuscript in
Cover letter should explicitly state that the manuscript (or one with substantially the same content,
by any of the authors) has not been previously published in any language anywhere and that it is not under simultaneous consideration or in press by another journal. If related work has been submitted, then we may require a preprint to be made available. Reviewers will be asked to comment on the overlap between the related submissions.
Manuscripts that have been previously rejected, or withdrawn after being returned for modification,
may be resubmitted if the major criticisms have been addressed. The cover letter must state that the manuscript is a resubmission, and the former manuscript number should be provided.
To ensure fair and objective decision-making, authors must declare any associations that pose a
conflict of interest in connection with evaluated manuscripts (see Editorial Policy for details). Authors may suggest up to two referees not to use and in such cases additional justification should be provided in the cover letter. Authors are encouraged to recommend up to five reviewers who are not members of their institution(s) and have never been associated with them or their laboratory(ies);
please provide contact information for suggested reviewers. The Editors reserve the right to select expert reviewers at their discretion. 7. Submission of Revised Articles When revision of a manuscript is requested, authors are expected to deliver the revised version of the manuscript as soon as possible. The manuscript should be uploaded directly to the Editool as an answer to the Editor's decision (and not as a new manuscript). Manuscripts that have been rejected, or withdrawn after being returned for modification, may be resubmitted if the major criticisms have been addressed. In such cases, the cover letter must state that the manuscript is a resubmission, and the former manuscript number should be provided.
Resubmitted manuscript should be accompanied by a letter outlining a point-by-point response to
Editor's and reviewers' comments and detailing the changes made to the manuscript. A compare copy of the manuscript should be included if the Editor requested one. If it is the 1st revision authors need to return revised manuscript within 60 days; if it is the 2nd revision authors need to return revised manuscript within 14 days. Additional time for resubmission must be requested in advance; further 14 days may be given to authors for further improvements. If the above mentioned deadlines are not met, the manuscript will be treated as a new submission.
Please provide us with an editable text and publication-quality figures. Tables also need to be
included within an editable article file or be submitted separately as editable files. Supply any figures as separate high-resolution, print-ready digital versions. In addition to the editorial remarks, authors are asked to take care that they have prepared the revised version according to the Journal's style. Please adopt numbered citation (citation-sequence) style referencing. 8. Preparation of Manuscripts It is essential that contributors prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions and specifications presented below. General rules for writing The work must demonstrate its novelty, importance to a particular field and its interest to those outside that discipline. Conclusions must be justified by the study, please make your argumentation complete and be self-critical as you review your drafts. JGS encourages the submission of both substantial full- length bodies of work and shorter manuscripts that report novel findings that might be based on a more limited range of experiments. There are no specific length restrictions for the overall manuscript or individual sections; however, we urge the authors to present and discuss their findings in a concise and accessible manner. Use simple and declarative sentences and commonly understood terms, avoid long sentences and idle words. We recommend that for clarity you use the past tense to narrate particular events in the past, including the procedures, observations, and data of the study that you are reporting. Use the present tense for your own general conclusions, the conclusions of previous researchers, and generally accepted facts. Thus, most of the Abstract, Experimental Procedures, and Results should be in the past tense, and most of the Introduction and some of the Discussion should be in the present tense. Editors may make suggestions for how to improve clarity and readability, as well as to strengthen the argument. Organization of the Manuscript Articles should be organized into the following sections: Title page with: Title (and running title); Author's name(s); Affiliation(s); Address(es) Abstract Keywords Introduction Experimental Procedures Results Discussion
Acknowledgments (if applicable) References Figure Legends and Table Captions Tables Figures Supplemental data (if applicable) Each of these elements is detailed below. We draw particular attention of authors to the importance of carefully preparing the title, keywords and abstract as these elements are indicators of the manuscript content in bibliographic databases and search engines. Title We suggest the title should be informative, specific to the project, yet concise (75 characters or less). Please bear in mind that a title that is comprehensible to a broad scientific audience and readers outside your field will convey to wide readership of your article. Avoid specialist abbreviations and non-standard acronyms. Titles should not be presented in title case (words should not be capitalized). Please also provide a brief "running title" of not more than 50 characters. Authors, Affiliations, Addresses Provide the first names (or initials - if used), middle names (or initials - if used), surnames for all authors. Affiliations should include: Department University or organization City Postal code State/province (if applicable) Country One of the authors should be designated as the corresponding author to whom inquiries regarding the paper should be directed. It is the corresponding author's responsibility to ensure that the author list and the summary of the author contributions to the study are accurate and complete. Place an asterisk after the name of the corresponding author and provide us with a valid e-mail address. Please note that a change in authorship (order of listing, addition or deletion of a name, or corresponding author designation) after submission of the manuscript will be implemented only after receipt of signed statements of agreement from all parties involved. Footnote can be used to present additional information (for example: permanent, adequate, present postal addresses). If the article has been submitted on behalf of a consortium, all consortium members and affiliations should be listed after the Acknowledgments. Abstract and Image accompanying abstract The abstract should be succinct; it should not exceed 200 words. The abstract should give the idea of the basic content of the paper and is usually conceptually divided into: Background, Methodology, Principal Findings/Results, and Conclusions/Significance. Mention the techniques used without going into methodological detail and summarize briefly the most important items of the paper. Please do not include any citations or references to tables or figures, and avoid specialist abbreviations and symbols. Because the abstract will be published separately by abstracting services, it must be complete and understandable without reference to the text.
Authors may provide a striking image to accompany their article, if one is available. If the image
(photo, graph, scheme) is judged by the editors to be suitable for publication, it may be featured on the web to highlight the paper online. It is preferable, but not essential, that these should be related strictly to the subject reported in the manuscript. The image could originate from the experimental findings reported in the manuscript but does not have to constitute a part of the original work and need not be reprinted in the article. Images must be original and should be submitted as separate files.
Keywords List keywords for the work presented (maximum of 10), separated by commas. Introduction The introduction should put the focus of the manuscript into a broader context and should supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results without referring to previous publications on the topic. As you compose the introduction, think of readers who are not experts in this field. Include a brief review of the key literature - use only those references required to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review of the topic. Relevant controversies or disagreements in the field should be mentioned so that a non-expert reader can delve into these issues further. The introduction should conclude with a brief statement of the rationale for the study, the hypothesis that was addressed or the overall purpose of the experiments reported and should provide a comment about whether that aim was achieved. Experimental Procedures This section should include sufficient technical information to enable the experiments to be reproduced. Protocols for new methods or significant modifications to existing methods should be included, while previously published or well-established protocols should only be referenced. Describe new methods completely and give sources of unusual chemicals, equipment, strains etc. Studies presented should comply with our recommendations for distribution of materials and data (see below). In theoretical papers comprising the computational analyses, technical details (methods, models applied or newly developed) should be provided to enable the readers to reproduce the calculations. Results This section should provide details of all of the experiments that are required to support the conclusions of the paper. Reserve extensive interpretation of the results for the Discussion section. Details of experiments that are peripheral to the main thrust of the article and that detract from the focus of the article should not be included. Present the results as concisely as possible in text, table(s), or figure(s) (see below). Avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely presented in the text or tables. Graphs illustrating methods commonly used need not be shown except in unusual circumstances. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and be sure to cite all figures and tables. Styles and fonts should match those in the main body of the article. Large datasets, including raw data, should be submitted as supporting files. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. Discussion The Discussion should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work and to the experimental system used. It should not contain extensive repetition of the Results or reiteration of the Introduction. This section should spell out the major conclusions of the work along with some explanation or speculation on the significance of these conclusions. The discussion should be concise and tightly argued. The results and discussion sections may be combined into one section and can include additional subheadings. Acknowledgments: This section should describe sources of funding that have supported the work. Please also describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the paper; and decision to submit it for publication. Recognition of personal assistance should be given as a separate paragraph: people who contributed to the work, but do not fit the criteria for authors should be listed along with their contributions. You must ensure that anyone named in the acknowledgments agrees to being so named. References: Because all references will be linked electronically to the papers they cite, proper formatting of the references is crucial (see Reference Guide for more details). A complete reference should give the reader enough information to find the relevant article. Please pay particular attention to spelling, capitalization and punctuation.
References to unpublished or submitted work, unpublished conference presentations, personal communications, patent applications and patents pending, computer software, databases, and websites should be referred to as such only in the body of the text. These should be kept to the minimum. The examples are as follows: (J. Smith, unpublished data) (J. Smith and P. Brown, submitted for publication) (J. Smith, personal communication) (J. Smith and P. Brown, presented at the 4th Symposium on Food Microbiology, Overton, IL, 13 - 15 June 1989) (J. C. Odell, April 1970, Process for batch culturing, U.S. patent 484,363,770) (J. Smith, 20 June 1999, Australian Patent Office) … from the GenBank database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/index.html) . using ABC software (version 1; Division of Geodesy, State University, http://www.stu.micro) Published or accepted ('in press') manuscripts, books and book chapters, theses should be included in the reference list. References to published meetings abstracts should be kept to the minimum. For all references, list the first six authors; add "et al." if there are additional authors. Standard abbreviations of journal names according to Thomson Scientific should be used (see: Journal Abbreviations). Please use the following style for the reference list: Published Papers Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Staphylococcus aureus- derived staphopain B, a potent cysteine protease activator of plasma chemerin, J. Immunol., 2007, 178, 3713-3720 Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Stafopaina B Staphylococcus aureus, aktywator chemeryny osoczowej, J. Immunol., 2007, 178, 3713-3720, (in Polish) Accepted Papers Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Staphylococcus aureus- derived staphopain B, a potent cysteine protease activator of plasma chemerin, J. Immunol., (in press), DOI: 12.3412/01 Kulig P., Zabel B.A., Dubin G., Allen S.J., Ohyama T., Potempa J., et al., Stafopaina B Staphylococcus aureus, aktywator chemeryny osoczowej, J. Immunol., (in press, in Polish), DOI: 12.3412/01 Electronic Journal Articles Dionne M.S., Schneider D.S., Screening the immune system, Genome Biol., 2002, http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/4/reviews/1010 Books and book chapters Sambrook J., Russell D.W., 2001, Molecular cloning - a laboratory manual, 3rd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, Sambrook J., 2001, Cloning and sequencing, In: Sambrook J., Russell D.W. (Eds.), Molecular cloning - a laboratory manual, 3rd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor Theses Agutter A.J., 1995, Analysis of sigma factors in S. aureus, PhD thesis, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, UK,
Agutter A.J., 1995, Analiza czynnikow sigma S. aureus, PhD thesis, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland, (in Polish) Conference proceedings Smith J., Brown P., Reference style guide, 2007, In: M. Scott (Ed.), Proceedings of Biochemical Society Conference (11-13 July 2007, Warszawa, Poland), Versita Warsaw, 1335-1791 References are listed in alphabetical order. Before submitting your article, please make sure you have carefully checked the manuscript for any relevant references you may have missed. Figures and Figure Legends Authors may use schemes, diagrams, line graphs and bar charts to illustrate their findings. Figures included with online submissions should be suitable for onscreen viewing and desktop printing. High resolution images should be provided on request or on manuscript acceptance. The figures and their lettering should be clear and easy to read i.e. no labels should be too large or too small. We remind authors that it is not acceptable scientific conduct to modify any separate element within an image (adjustments of the entire image in brightness, contrast and color balance are justified only if they do not misrepresent the original, observed data). Composite figures composed of grouped images such as insets from different fields or separate parts of gels must be explained in the figure legend and differentiated by use of dividing lines or other means to make composites unambiguous. Figures should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and referred to in the text by number. Figure legends should follow the main text, each on a separate page. Each figure legend should have a concise title and should provide enough information so that the figure is understandable without frequent reference to the text. It should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure, but the figure should also be discussed in the text. The legend should be succinct, while still explaining all symbols and abbreviations. Avoid lengthy descriptions of methods. Tables and Table Captions Tables must include enough information to warrant table format and should be used only where information cannot be presented in the text. Tables should be typed as text, using either 'tabs' or a table editor for layout, please do not use graphics software to create tables. Tables occupying more than one printed page should be avoided, if possible; larger tables can be published as appendix. Do not use picture elements, text boxes, tabs, or returns in tables. Tables that contain artwork, chemical structures, or shading must be submitted as illustrations. Tables should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and referred to in the text by number. Table legends should follow the main text, each on a separate page. Each table should have an explanatory caption which should be as concise as possible. The headings should be sufficiently clear so that the meaning of the data is understandable without reference to the text. Footnotes can be used to explain abbreviations but should not include detailed descriptions of the experiment. Citations should be indicated using the same style as outlined above. Equations: In-line equations should be typed as text. The use of graphics programs and 'equation editors' should be avoided. All the variables of the formulas should be italic and matrices are capital and bolded and vector non-capital but bolded. The texts of the formulas are normal. Abbreviations: Please keep abbreviations to a minimum and it is recommended to consider a list for them before the introduction of paper. Supplemental Material We encourage authors to submit essential supplementary files that additionally support the authors' conclusions along with their manuscripts (the principal conclusions should be fully supported without referral to the supplemental material). Supplemental material will always remain associated with its article and is not subject to any modifications after publication. The decision to publish the material with the article if it is accepted will be made by the Editor. Supporting files of no more than 10 MB in may be submitted in a variety of formats, but should be publication-ready, as these files will be published exactly as supplied. Material must be restricted to large or complex data sets or results that
cannot be readily displayed because of space or technical limitations. Material that has been published previously is not acceptable for posting as supplemental material. Supporting files should fall into one of the following categories: Dataset Additional Figure or Table Text Protocol Multimedia - Audio/Video/Animations (AVI, MPEG, WAV, Quicktime, animated GIF or Flash) If the software required for users to view/use the supplemental material is not embedded in the file, you are urged to use shareware or generally available/easily accessible programs. To prevent any misunderstandings we request that authors submit a text file (instruction.txt) containing a brief instruction on how to use the files supplied. All supporting information should be referred to in the manuscript, with titles (and, if desired, legends) for all files listed under the heading 'Supporting Information'. 9. Nomenclature We strongly recommend the use of correct and established nomenclature wherever possible. Always report numerical data (length, weight, and volume) in the appropriate SI units. 10. Formatting and Typesetting All pages must be numbered consecutively. The whole text (including legends, footnotes, and references) should be formatted double-spaced with no hyphenation and automatic word-wrap (no hard returns within paragraphs). Please type your text consistently, e.g. take care to distinguish between '1' (one), 'I' (capital I) and 'l' (lower-case L) and '0' (zero) and 'O' (capital O), etc. Manuscript pages should have line numbers. The font size should be no smaller than 12 points. Footnotes and endnotes should be avoided. Allowable footnotes/endnotes may include: the designation of the corresponding author of the paper, the current address of an author (if different from that shown in the affiliation), abbreviations and acronyms. Do not create symbols as graphics or use special fonts that are external to your word processing program; use the "insert symbol" function. Indicate paragraph lead-ins in bold type and italicize any words that should appear in italics. Decimal multiples or submultiples of units are indicated by the use of prefixes Most units are spaced off from the number, the only exceptions are: 1%, 1‰, 1°C, 1°, 1', 1". 11. Distribution of materials and data The publication of an article in JGS is subject to the understanding that authors make all data and associated protocols available to readers on request. The Experimental Procedures section should include details of how materials and information may be obtained. In cases of dispute, authors may be required to make primary data available to the Editor. Authors are expected to use established public repositories wherever possible. All newly reported data including datasets, images, and information should be deposited in public resources and must be accessible without restriction from the date of publication. Please provide the relevant entry name, accession number or identification code in the Experimental Procedures section. Please note that an author's web site is not acceptable for providing this type of information.
In the case of new software, source code should ideally be made available, for example as
supporting information with the rest of the paper, or by deposition at a publicly accessible resource such as sourceforge.net. For a new algorithm a detailed description should be published in the paper. In cases where the software/algorithm is not central to the paper, we nevertheless encourage authors to make all relevant materials freely available. Software can be provided under license where necessary, but any restrictions on the availability or on the use of materials might be judged to diminish the significance of a paper, and therefore influence the decision about whether a paper should be published subject to those conditions.
12. Transfer of Copyright Agreement Once the paper is accepted, authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the publisher, Versita. A properly completed Transfer of Copyright Agreement, signed by the Corresponding Author on behalf of all the authors, must be provided for each submitted manuscript as a condition of publication. A form is sent to the authors upon a new manuscript submission, it can also be downloaded from the journal’s webpage Manuscripts submitted under multiple authorship are reviewed on the assumption that all listed authors concur in the submission and that the final version of the manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors. Transfer of Copyrights Agreement document should be signed and sent by regular mail to the following address: Versita, PO Box. 8, 00- 951 Warsaw 41 Poland. 13. Outline of the Production Process Once an article has been accepted for publication, the manuscript files are transferred into our production system to be language-edited and formatted. Language and technical editors reserve the privilege of editing manuscripts to conform with the stylistic conventions of the journal. Once the article has been typeset, PDF proofs are generated so that authors can approve all editing and layout. Electronic Proofs Proofreading should be carried out once a final draft has been produced. Since the proofreading stage is the last opportunity to correct the article to be published, the authors are requested to make every effort to check for errors in their proofs before the paper is posted online. Please note that only essential changes can be made at this stage and extensive corrections, additions, or deletions will not be allowed. Limit changes to correction of spelling errors, incorrect data, and grammatical errors and updated information for references to articles that have been submitted or are in press. If URLs have been provided in the article, recheck the sites to ensure that the addresses are still accurate and the material that you expect the reader to find is indeed there. Important new information that has become available between acceptance of the manuscript and receipt of the proofs may be inserted proof with the permission of the editor. Additionally, authors may be asked to address remarks and queries from the language and/or technical editors. Queries are written only to request necessary information or clarification of an unclear passage or to draw attention to edits that may have altered the sense. Please note that language/technical editors do not query at every instance where a change has been made. It is the author's responsibility to read the entire text, tables, and figure legends, not just items queried. Major alterations made will always be submitted to the authors for approval.
Corresponding author receives e-mail notification when a downloadable PDF file is available in the
Editool and should return the comments within 3 days of receipt. The prompt return of proofs by authors will expedite the production process. Comments should be submitted via the Editool (or, in case of any problems, they can be e-mailed to Managing editor). Please note that they should not be faxed, nor mailed or sent by a courier service to the Editorial Office. Online publication JGS is covered by Springer's OnlineFirst service. Online First articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a fully assembled online and printed issue. The manuscripts are considered to be ready for publication online when the final proofreading has been performed by authors, and all concerns have been resolved. Online publication will normally be within 2 weeks of receipt of corrected proofs by the production office. Authors should note that OnlineFirst articles are complete and final and thus no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of OnlineFirsty articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so OnlineFirst articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication the DOI remains valid and can continued to be used to cite and access the article.
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ROTARY 2 SL ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS DO NOT apply directly to water, or to areas where surface water is present, or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark. DO NOT contaminate water when disposing of Specimen Label equipment washwaters or rinsate. This herbicide is phytotoxic at extremely low concentra-tions. Non-target plants may be adversely affected from drift. Alligare