Perspectives in Animal
Ecology and Reproduction
The Editors

Dr. Vijay Kumar Gupta, Ph.D., FLS, London (born
1953-) Chief Scientist, CSIR- Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India. He did his M.Sc. (1975) and Ph.D.
(1979) in Zoology both from University of Jammu, Jammu- India. His research capabilities are substantiated by his excellent work on histopathology, ecology and reproductive biology of fishes, turtles, birds and mammals, which has already got recognition Dr. Gupta has to his credit more than 100 scientific publications and review articles which have appeared in internationally recognized Indian and foreign journals. His current areas of interest are histopathology, toxicology, pre-clinical safety pharmacology, reproductive efficacy studies of laboratory He is the Series Editor of the recently published multi-volume set of books, “Comprehensive Bioactive Natural Products (Vols. 1-8)”, published by M/S
Studium Press, LLC, USA. He is also Editor-in-Chief of the books, “Utilisation
and Management of Medicinal Plants”, “Medicinal Plants: Phytochemistry,
Pharmacology and Therapeutics (Vols.1&2)”, “Traditional and Folk Herbal
Medicine”, “Natural Products: Research Reviews”, “Bioactive
Phytochemicals: Perspectives for Modern Medicine”, “Perspectives in
Animal Ecology and Reproduction (Vols.1-8)” and “Animal Diversity,
Natural History & Conservation”. Dr. Gupta appointed as Nominee for the
Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals Dr. Anil K. Verma, Ph.D., M.N.A.Sc., FLS, London (born 1963-) Prof. &
Head, Department of Zoology, Govt. (P.G.) Degree College Rajouri, J&K State, did his M.Sc. in Zoology (1986) from University of Jammu, Jammu. He has undergone his M.Phil. (1988) and awarded first rank and Ph.D.(1993) in the field of animal reproduction at the same University. Dr. Verma has published about 60 research papers and review articles in reputed journals and books. He is also a member Editorial Board of the book series “Advances in Fish and Wildlife: Ecology and Biology” a Daya Publications, New Delhi.
Dr. Gurdarshan Singh (born 1962), working as
Principal Scientist in the PK-PD-Toxicology Division of Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu. He did his M.Sc. (1987), M.Phil. (1989) and Ph.D. (1993) in Zoology from University of Jammu, Jammu-India.
Dr. Singh has published 16 research papers, both in national and international journals of high repute and impact Perspectives in Animal
Ecology and Reproduction
— Volume 9 —
Dr. V.K. Gupta
Dr. Anil K. Verma
Dr. G.D. Singh
Daya Publishing House®
A Division of
Astral International Pvt. Ltd.
New Delhi – 110 002
Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate at the time of going to press, and the publisher and author cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions, however caused. No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to any person acting, or refraining from action, as a result of the material in this publication can be accepted by the editor, the publisher or the author. The Publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in the book. The contents of this work are intended to further general scientific research, understanding and discussion only. Readers should consult with Every effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright material used in this book, if any. The author and the publisher will be grateful for any omission brought to their notice for acknowledgement in the future All Rights reserved under International Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written consent of the publisher and the copyright owner. : Daya Publishing House®
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Editorial Board
– Editor-in-Chief –
Dr. V.K. Gupta, FLS, London
Chief Scientist
CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine,
Canal Road, Jammu – 180 001, India
E-mail: [email protected]

– Editors –
Dr. A.K. Verma, FLS, London,
Professor and Head
Department of Zoology, Government Degree College,
Rajouri, Jammu – 180001, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. G.D. Singh
Principal Scientist
Pharmacology Division,
Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR),
Canal Road, Jammu – 180 001, India
E-mail: [email protected]

– Members –
Prof. Clement A. Tisdell
Professor Emeritus,
School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
E-mail: [email protected]

Prof. Tej Kumar Sherstha
Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Justin Gerlach
Chief Scientist,
The Nature Protection of Seychelles,
133 Cherry Hinton Road, Cambridge CBI 7BX,UK
E-mail: [email protected]

Prof. Vanitha Kumari
Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Sunil Kumar
Deputy Director (Sr. Grade),
Division of Reproductive Toxicology & Histochemistry,
National Institute of Occupational Health,
Meghani Nagar, Ahmedabad – 380 016, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. A.K. Pandey
Principal Scientist,
Canal Ring Road, Lucknow – 224 002, U.P. India
E-mail: [email protected]

Living organisms exist in different forms on this earth from protozoan to the highly evolved human beings. Their mode of reproduction also varies greatly from asexual to highly complex sexual cycle according to the phylogenetic progression. Biodiversity of life is distributed from highest of mountains to the deep seas and are adapted to the ecological niches they occupy. Biodiversity is variations in the genetics and life forms of populations, species, communities and ecosystems which affect the capacity of living systems to respond to changes in the environment essential for providing goods and services from the ecosystems.
Ecology and biodiversity are to be viewed in different perspectives with the changing scenario including anthropogenic interventions in the nature leading to environmental pollution, climate changes, resource depletion and threatening of the species.
Owing to the excessive genetic loss during the last few decades, the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (Agenda 21) envisaged conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the biological resources. The Post-Earth Summit Assessment Report (2002) revealed destruction of 2.4 per cent of the world forests (90 million ha) cover and about 40 per cent of world population faced water shortage during this period. The need to feed rising global population with exacerbated increase in food consumption (from 2100 calories to 2700 calories/day in developing countries and from 3000 calories to 3400 calories/day in developed countries) will certainly put extra pressure on agricultural production which consumes about 70 per cent of the global freshwater supplies. Signs of climate change linked to global warming causing most frequent and intense droughts in parts of Asia and Africa and rising sea levels would be addressed in the dimensions of biodiversity and ecosystem management, productivity enhancement and regulatory measures.
Over the past decades, the field of reproduction has changed drastically. It was known for many years that the gonadotropin- releasing hormone (GnRH), elaborated from hypothalamus of the vertebrates, promotes reproductive activity by stimulating production and release of pituitary gonadotropins (GtH-I and II) but the recent identification of multiple forms of GnRH with wide expression patterns have given a different dimensions to the concept.
Molecular biology and genomics have revolutionized the study of reproduction in vertebrates related to the structure of hormones and their receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and enzymes involved in synthesis and release of steroids. Our knowledge on reproductive physiology of crustaceans is still in infancy. Better understanding of physiology of reproduction is having wider applications in the propagation of commercially important species for effective utilization and diversification. Chemical characterization of releaser, primer and imprinter pheromones in the animal kingdom has given new insights into their potential utility in animal husbandry and wildlife ecology.
It gives me immense pleasure to write the Foreword for the Perspectives in Animal Ecology and Reproduction, Vol. 9. I heartily congratulate Dr. V.K. Gupta, Dr. A.K. Verma and Dr. G.D. Singh for bringing together the eminent scientists with updated reviews and research papers in the rapidly expanding but interlinked disciplines of animal ecology and reproductive biology and doing justice in editing the series meticulously in elegant manner. I am sure that the current publication will provide valuable source of information and serve reference book for students, teachers and scientists in the A.K. Pandey
Ecology and reproduction have become the focus of attention of the scientists and scholars now-a-days and all the efforts are underway for a better understanding of the complex interaction among various living organisms and the abiotic environment. The first volume of the series “Perspectives in Animal Ecology andReproduction” was published in 2002 when there was tremendous pressure upon the animals and other resources of the earth and the situation has not changed much in the last decade. In India the population has since crossed the one billion mark and the ever increasing population of the world has continued to create pollution Present volume of the series (Volume 9) comprises the vast body of research on the subject and has been designed in such a way as to serve the purpose of the students and the scientists. The book includes twenty six original research articles written by eminent researchers from within India and abroad. The book thoroughly covers all basic information on the subject of animal ecology and reproduction to make reader updated with the latest developments in this field where propagation of scientific information has been enormous.
The papers incorporated herein represents extremely modest selection of several facts of the breeding ecology and diversity of the animals. The lead articles focus upon the taxa ranging from minor phyla to mammals representing research work, review or overviews.
The volume includes topics viz. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Gerifort drug extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities; Behavioural studies on the Hemipteran-Diplonychusrusticus; Noval bio-pesticides for mosquito vectors; Use of bio- insecticides for control of Dengue vector; Larvicidal effect of Spinosad and Azadirachtin against Aedes aegypti; Nutritional status of molluscs in Nepal; Utilization of feeds on the survivality of Tiger prawn and for sustainable aquaculture productivity.
Other notable inclusions in this volume are: Effect of dye effluents on haematological parameters of Indian major carp Labeo rohita; Effect of Doramectin administration on biochemical parameters of live fishChanna punctatus; Anti-hepatotoxic effects of vitamins on damaged liver of rats; Role of vitamin A, C and E on the histopathological changes induced in the pancreas of rats; Effects of Triphla and Trikatu on obesity in albino rats; Protective role of Vitamin E on Aroclor 1260 induced oxidative damage in steroidogenic enzymes in TM Leydig cell line and the Anti-oxidant activity of Genistein on Aroclor 1260 induced toxicity in TM Leydig cell line.
The authors have tried to analyze the bio-ecological spectra vis-à-vis breeding strategies adapted by diverse animals in vivo andin vitro as well. It is hoped that this volume shall generate further database for the researchers and academicians working on this field who shall find this book very useful and indispensable in their Dr. V.K. Gupta
Editorial Board
1. Synthesis of Herbal Drug Mediated Silver
Nanoparticles Using Geriforte Drug Extract and
Evaluation of their Antimicrobial Activities

V. Maruthappan, R.T. Rajendra Kumar, M. Ramesh and
K. Sakthi Shree

2. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal Pollution from
Industrial Waste Water by Microorganisms
Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Sikha Dutta and
Narayan Chandra Chatterjee

3. Time Activity Budget and Relative Frequency of
Behaviour in Diplonychus rusticus (Insecta: Hemiptera)
P. Venkatesan
4. Acridoids as Bio-indicators of Contaminant
Accumulation in the Industrial Areas of the
State of Jharkhand (India)

Mohd. Kamil Usmani, Md. Rashid Nayeem and
Md. Humayoon Akhtar

5. Novel Biopesticides for the Sustainable Management
of Mosquito Vectors (Insecta : Diptera : Culicidae)
K. Murugan, P. Madhiyazhagan A. Noortheen, T. Nataraj,
D. Amerasan, K. Kalimuthu and Jiang-Shiou Hwang

6. Use of Biological Insecticides for the Control of Dengue
Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Insecta : Diptera : Culicidae)
K. Murugan, A. Noortheen, T. Nataraj, D. Amerasan,
P. Madhiyazhagan, K. Kalimuthu and Jiang-Shiou Hwang

7. Larvicidal Effect of Spinosad and Azadirachtin
Against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti
(Insecta : Diptera : Culicidae) and Chironomus
P. Madhiyazhagan, K. Murugan, A. Nareshkumar, T. Nataraj,
D. Amerasan, K. Kalimuthu and Jiang-Shiou Hwang

8. Effect of Some Abiotic Factors on the Post Embryonic
Development of Spathosternum prasiniferum Walker
Orthoptera : Acridoidea : Hemiacridini)

Uzma Rafi, Mohd. Kamil Usmani and Zeb Shamael
9. Comparative Studies on Growth, Dietary Utilization
and Survivality of Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon)
Fed with Two Different Commercially Available Feeds 200
Basudev Mandal and Tarani Sen Mahata

10. Nutritional Status of Three Species of Molluscs
Kul Prasad Limbu, Bharat Raj Subba and
Basanta Kumar Rai

11. Effects of Xylene, Benzene and Gear Oil-WSF
Exposures on Certain Biochemical Parameters of
Gafrarium divaricatum
B.G. Kulkarni, Shirley Agwuocha and A.K. Pandey
12. Prevalence of Invasive Slug Laevicaulis alte
(Ferrussac, 1821) (Systellommataphora : Veronicellidae)
in Bangalore Region

M. Jayashankar, A.S. Jeevan Chakravarthy, R. Shreyas,
L.S. Vinesh, N. Manjunath, P. Ravi and J. Manjunath

13. Effects of Sublethal Doramectin Administration
on Certain Biochemical Parameters in Muscles of
Channa punctatus

Namita Verma
14. Heavy Metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Pb) in Soft Tissues
of Gastropods, Bursa spinosa and Nerita oryzarum
from Uran Coast, Mumbai (India): A Case Study
Sandhya S. Kupekar, B.G. Kulkarni and A.K. Pandey
15. Advanced Maturation in Indian Major Carps
Maintained on Lysine and Methionine
Supplemented Semi-balanced Diet

A.K. Pandey, M. Sarkar, C.T. Mahapatra, G. Kanungo
and P.K. Arvindakshan

16. Pineal Melatonin and Reproduction in
Teleostean Fishes
A.K. Singh and Ruchi Singh
17. Utilization of Fish Meal for Sustainable Aquaculture
Management and Productivity
Meenakshi Jindal
18. Feed Supplementation and Water Quality Management
for Sustainable Aquaculture
Meenakshi Jindal
19. Alterations in Haematological and Biochemical
Parameters of Climbing Perch, Anabas testudineus
(Bloch), Due to Mercury Intoxication
Kuldeep Kumar and A.K. Pandey
20. Eco-morphological, Histochemical and Functional
Organization of Integumentary Covering in Vertebrates
with Particular Reference to the Teleost Fishes

Iqbal Parwez and Subuhi Abidi
21. Alterations in Haematological Parameters of an
Indian Major Carp Labeo rohita Exposed to
Dye Effluent

V. Sasikalamathi, M. Ramesh and R.K. Poopal
22. Anti-Hepatotoxic Efficacy of Vitamins (‘B’ Complex
and C) on Ibuprofen Induced Liver Damage in Rats
K. Prema, B. Kalaivani and G. Vanithakumari
23. Rescue of Antioxidant Vitamins (A and C) on
Ciprofloxacin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats
D. Srinivasan, B. Kalaivani and G. Vanitha Kumari
24. Weight Reducing Effect of Triphala and Trikatu on
High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Albino Rats
B. Kalaivani and G. Vanithakumari
25. Antioxidant Activity of Genistein on Polychlorinated
Biphenyl (Aroclor 1260) Induced Toxicity in
TM3 Leydig Cell Line

Yasemin Tunali Ayun, Banu Orta and Melike Erkan
26. Protective Role of Vitamin E on Polychlorinated
Biphenyl (Aroclor 1260) Induced Oxidative Damage
and Changes in Steroidogenic Enzymes in TM3
Leydig Cell Line

Yasemin Tunali Ayun and Melike Erkan
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