Name:________________________________________________ Date:_____________________Period:__ Nervous Study Guide Know all parts of the brain location and functions Classification of Neurons Synaptic Knob location Vital Centers location Parts of autonomic system Brain Stem Parts of the meninges and location of each The main divisions of the central nervous system Know the different glia and their function Know the 12 cranial nerves location and function Somatic Vs. Autonomic Afferent vs efferent Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic Neuron facts Node of ranier Function of cerebrospinal fluid Reticular formation White matter Gray matter What parts are white matter and what parts are gray Arbor vitae Parts of diencephalons Parts of the brain that link mind and body Melatonin Tissue that joins the 2 cerebral hemispheres Gryus Sulcus (sulci) All about EEG These lobes and functions frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal Diseases & Disorders of Nervous System 1. Multiple sclerosis- most common CNS disorder; loss of myelin, autoimmunity or viral infections, can lead to immobility; no known cure, research with interferons 2. Meningitis- inflammation of meninges (arachnoid layer), caused by bacteria (worse kind) or virus, can 3. Hydrocephalus- CSF gets blocked in ventricle or arachnoid layer, pressure causes brain damage, drain 4. Schizophrenia- genetic; overabundance of dopamine; common symptoms are thought disturbance, withdrawal, hallucinations, grandiosity, anxiety, depression; drug treatment 5. Stroke- neurons destroyed from hemorrhage/ ischemia, can lead to paralysis if motor neurons destroyed, 6. Dementia- degeneration of nerves in brain; affects memory, attention span, intellectual capacity, 7. Headache- pressure in blood vessels around head and neck; electrical and/or chemical instability in neurons such as lack of serotonin, sends pain messages to brain; drug treatment such as ibuprofen – analgesic anti-inflammatory 8. Migraine- type of tension headache, genetic; symptoms include nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light, sound, smell; drug treatment such as beta-blockers (preventative), antidepressants, calcium channel blocker, methysergide (anti-inflammatory), divalproex sodium (seizure medicine) 9. Alzheimer’s disease- destruction of cerebrum, lack of acetylcholine, form neural plaques – lesions on cortex; causes debated from genetic to environmental; prevent by low b.p. and cholesterol; leads to dementia 10. Huntington’s disease- genetic, autosomal dominant gene on chromosome IV; cerebrum degenerates in cortex, ventricles, and basal ganglia; leads to tremors and dementia; appears in older people, usually past 40 11. Parkinson’s Disease- destruction of substantia nigra in diencephalon, lack dopamine, affects voluntary muscles – tremors, use L-dopa treatment, research with fetal cells/ stem cells 12. Cerebral Palsy- nerve damage from prenatal infection, head trauma, poisons, anoxia; involuntary muscle control lost – paralysis; use muscle relaxants for treatment 13. Spina Bifida- birth defect in spine, leads to paralysis, take folic acid during pregnancy, surgery 14. Seizures- convulsions, cycles of brain circuitry abnormal, bursts of neuron activity; change in consciousness, motor control, sensory perception; treatments include anti-convulsants 15. Epilepsy- chronic seizures; drugs used to block neurotransmitters such as chlorine transport receptors 16. Depression- lack of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, etc.; SIGECAPS: 5 or fewer symptoms; drug treatment such as Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil 17. Bipolar Disorder- AKA manic depression; mental illness, mood swings – Highs and Lows; imbalance of neurotransmitters; SIGECAPS: 6 or more symptoms; drug treatment


November 20, 2003

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The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease Metformin European Association for the Study of Diabetes, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 2007 British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 2007 7: 247The online version of this article can be found at: can be found at: The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease Additional services and information fo

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