Microsoft word - nutritional guide.rtf

The Center for Nutrition in Sport
and Human Performance
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA


Avoiding Unhealthy Weight-Cutting Practices
Using the Principles of Sports Nutrition Being Smart about Vitamins, Minerals, and Other Supplements 11 V. QUICK TIPS
Wrestling is a great sport with a long history dating back to prehistoric times. Cave drawings found in France depict wrestlers in various holds and leverage positions. Wrestling became part of the Olympic Games in Greece in about 708B.C. Wrestling is one of the few sports where men of all sizes can compete. The sport requires strength, concentration, coordination, skill, agility, and muscular endurance. Wrestlers often seek to improve their performance by using the many supplements available on the market or working-out in hot rooms. However, the scientifically proven way to achieve the most out of your practice is to workout in a moderate to cool room. The sure way to energize your performance and competition is with the right eating plan over the entire season! This booklet provides information on how to determine the appropriate body weight for you, why heat and dehydration work against you, and tips on how to achieve the optimal diet to unleash a championship performance!
In the fall of 1997, three collegiate wrestlers died in their quest to make weight for competition. The NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguard and Medical Aspects of Sport, along with the NCAA Wrestling Rules Committee, worked together to develop new rules to ensure the health and safety of athletes. These rules will be monitored by the NCAA, so you should be familiar with them: • Artificial weight loss practices such as the use of laxatives, emetics, steam rooms, and hot • Weight classes will be established at the beginning of the season by a physician or athletic trainer. Athletes can modify their weight over 8 weeks of the season but cannot lose more than 1.5% of body weight per week. Also, athletes cannot fall below their established minimum body weight. • For dual meets, weigh-ins will be 1 hour before the start of the first match. For tournaments, weigh-ins will be 2 hours before the start of the first match on the first day and 1 hour before the first match on subsequent days. • All wrestling coaches must be required to be certified annually in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation • The new weight classes are: 125, 133, 141,149, 157, 165, 174,184, 197, and 285 pounds. III. MAKING
WEIGHING THE OPTIONS: Determining Your Weight Class
Competitive equity in wrestling requires that similar sized individuals compete against one another. Many wrestlers feel that they need to lose that extra body fat to cut down to a lower body weight and have used unhealthy and potentially dangerous weight loss methods. The following procedures were developed to prevent risk to health. These procedures are based on measurement of your body composition so that if you want to lose weight, it will be fat weight -not water and not muscle (which are both important for optimal performance). Your body is composed of fat tissue as well as lean tissue, which include muscle, bone, and water. The best way to lose weight and not impair performance is to lose fat tissue and maintain lean tissue. The American College of Sports Medicine and The American Academy of Pediatrics have set 5% as the minimum percent body fat for males to insure good health. Having less than 5% body fat can lead to serious health consequences and impaired performance. Your body fat will be assessed at the start of the season using either skinfold measures or hydrostatic weighing. A skinfold is the layer of fat over your muscles. Skinfold measurement will be taken from 3 sites on your body, and the measures will be entered into an equation that will predict your percent body fat. Hydrostatic weighing is a technique where you are actually weighed under water. The principle behind this measurement is that different materials (like fat and muscle) will displace water differently. Using hydrostatic weighing, an estimate of body fat can be obtained. Hydrostatic weighing is more accurate than skinfold measure. The following methods were put in place to establish a weight class that you can comfortably maintain over an entire season. This method is based on determining your minimal safe and healthy body weight at a percent body fat no lower than 5%. However, it is important for you to note that there is no scientific evidence that you will perform any better at 5% body fat than at 8% or 10% body fat During the first week in October, you will have your body weight and body composition determined. First you must provide a urine sample that will be tested for specific gravity. This is a measure of how concentrated your urine is. Very concentrated urine indicates dehydration. If your urine sample indicates you are dehydrated, you will have to drink fluids until your urine indicates that you are adequately hydrated. After you are properly hydrated, as measured by another urine sample, you will be weighed. Next, you will have your percent body fat and fat free weight (lean body weight) determined. Your minimal body weight will be established using the following equation: Minimum weight = Fat-free weight / 0.95
You will be allowed to lose no more than 1.5% of your original hydrated body weight per week for the next 8 weeks. You cannot go below your established minimum weight. Here are a few examples:
1) Wrestler #1
Using the hydrostatic weighing technique, Wrestler #1 was determined to have 12% body fat. If he weighs 168 Ibs, then the amount of fat he has is 20 Ibs. By subtracting 201bs of fat from his total body weight (168 Ibs), he is determined to have 148 Ibs of lean tissue (fat-free weight). rmined by taking the weight of his lean tissue and dividing Fat weight = 0.12 x 168 Ibs = 20 Ibs Lean tissue weight = 168 Ibs - 20 Ibs = 148 Ibs Minimum weight = 148 Ibs + 0.95 = 156 Ibs
weight but he cannot lose more that 1.5% of his original weigni (108 Ibs) per week. This equals 2.5 Ibs per week but he cannot lose weight below 156 Ibs. In two months, he returns to have his weight class established. His urine will be tested once again to see if he is hydrated, and if so, he ca n weigh-in. His body weight is now 15dbs and his weight class is set at 157 Ibs for the entire season. 2) Wrestler #2
3) Wrestler #3
Wrestler #2 has a hydrated weight of 168 Ibs and Wrestler #3 weighs 225 Ibs and his body fat was Lean tissue weight = 168 Ibs - 10 Ibs = 158 Ibs Lean tissue weight = 225 Ibs - 40.5 Ibs = 184.5 Ibs Minimum weight = 158 Ibs + 0.95 = 166 Ibs
Minimum weight = 184.5 Ibs + 0.95 = 194 Ibs
Therefore, he would already be at his lowest Over 8 weeks he cannot lose more than 1.5% of his wrestling weight class and could not drop a hydrated body weight (0.15 x 225 Ibs), which is 3.4 Ibs weight class. He would still have his hydration per week. This amounts to 27 Ibs in 8 weeks. 225 Ibs level measured and be weighed-in 8 weeks later. minus 27 Ibs is equal to 198 Ibs. Therefore he must A DELICATE BALANCE: Cutting and Maintaining Weight
The amount of calories each person needs is quite variable and based on a person’s body weight and energy expenditure. In general, you should not go below 1600 calories per
day. Going below 1600 calories per day will not provide you with the appropriate amount of
nutrients your body needs and will lead to loss of lean body mass (LBM) or muscle mass. You
will also feel weak and not be able to perform at your best, both in competition as well as
scholastically. Remember, 1600 calories is the absolute minimum amount of calories your
body needs; it is not the calorie intake you should strive for.
Any attempt at losing fat weight should start well before the start of the wrestling season. A weight loss of no more than 2 pounds per week will ensure that you will not lose body water and LBM, which is so critical for your performance and maintenance of your metabolic rate. In addition, by losing weight before the season^ start, you will not deprive yourself of nutrients, be better able to keep the weight off that you lost, and perform better in practice and competition, as well as scholastically. Here is a formula you can use to estimate your caloric needs:
Take your* body weight find multiply it by 10

If you weigh 1251bs
Multiply the number you get by 1.7
1250 x 1.7 = 2125 calories per day you will need to maintain a body weight of 125 pounds (Remember, this is an estimate, and you may need more than 2125 calories to maintain your body weight at 125 pounds.) If you need to decrease your body weight
Decrease your caloric intake from 250 to 500 calories per day. You will be able to safely lose 1 to 2 pounds per week, be able to maintain your body weight, and maintain optimal performance. Avoiding Unhealthy Weight-Cutting Practices
In the past, there have been unhealthy practices that wrestlers used to lose body weight. Most
of these methods included rapid weight loss. These unhealthy weight-cutting practices
often result in impaired performance and health, and can even lead to death. Some of
these practices are now banned by the NCAA, and others should be discouraged by all those
involved in the sport of wrestling.
Yo-Yo Dieting:
By having cycles of fasting then eating (typically Dehydration is a result of not taking in enough binge-eating), your body will store more body fat, fluids. Wrestlers who cut weight improperly are and it will be more difficult to lose body weight. Additionally, it places a great stress on your body Dehydration has a number of negative effects, every time you starve it then re-iced it with great which include: decreased muscular strength and endurance, decreased blood flow in your body, and a decreased ability to regulate your body Starvation/Fasting:
Dehydration is often a result of:
When you fast, or do not eat at all, your body uses your muscle mass first, not your fat mass, which • Diuretics ("water pills") - which can impair leads to impaired performance. In addition, with the proper functioning of your heart and each fast, your body actually gets better at storing fat in order to prepare itself for your next fast. So, • Sitting and/or exercising in a steam room starvation leads to muscle loss, impaired or sauna/exercising in plastic suits -can performance, and increase fat mass deposition, cause very rapid dehydration, leading to but also leads to a lower metabolic rate, which heat stroke, electrolyte imbalances, heart makes it more difficult to lose body weight with Diet Pills/Laxatives:
Use of diet pills, which can contain products that in crease your heart rate and blood pressure to dangerous levels, are not safe and should be avoid ed. Furthermore, laxatives have a dehydrating effect and are not safe and should also be avoided. ENERGIZING YOUR PERFORMANCE
FUELING UP: Using the Principles of Sport Nutrition

Based on the amount of calories that you require (see page 7), you now need to
determine the amount of calories you should get from carbohydrates, protein, and fat. All three
of these "macronutrients" are important for your performance. Too many wrestlers focus
on consuming carbohydrates and protein. However, cutting out fat from your diet will impair
your performance, since it is used as an energy source as well as in many other functions
of your body.
Carbohydrates are used for energy even when you are not The glycemic index refers to the effect foods have on your blood exercising. For optimal performance, it is important that your sugar (glucose) levels. The faster and higher a food makes your glycogen stores (stored form of carbohydrate in your body) are blood sugar rise, the higher its glycemic index. Maintaining an replenished after each work-out. The optimal time to replenish your adequate blood sugar means that you will have optimal energy and glycogen stores is during the two hours following a practice. This is maintain and/or improve your ability to focus. Adequate blood sugar not to say that you should only eat after practice, but, that after levels mean adequate energy for performance. practice, high carbohydrate foods will help to give you that edge of increased glycogen stores and prepare your body for your next High glycemic index foods may enhance performance in athletes and can be useful during and afterwork-outs or competitions. Low glycemic index foods may behelpful prior to sports activity. If you The amount of carbohydrates you typically need is about 60% of want to "experiment" with different types of carbohydrates, do so your total caloric intake. For simplicity, if you ate 2,000 calories a during practices, not competition. Here is a list of some high day, 60% of that is 1,200 calories from carbohydrates, which is glycemic index foods: waffles, bagels, white bread, rice cakes, equal to 300 grams (g) of carbohydrates (there are 4 calories of graham crackers, RiceKrispies*,Cheerios*, watermelon, baked carbohydrate per gram; thus, 1200 + 4 = 300 g of carbohydrate per potatoes, mashed potatoes, carrots, jelly beans, LifeSavers*, day). The list below provides you with examples of some good sources of carbohydrates. Electrolyte/carbohydrate drinks, gels, and sports bars help provide Here are some moderate glycemic index foods: orange juice, your body with quick energy. Just remember that you need to drink Gatorade*, rice, oatmeal, Grape Nuts*, wheat crackers, whole plenty of fluids if you consume the gels and/or sports bars! wheat bread, pineapple, raisins, banana, grapes. Here is a list of some low glycemic index foods: pasta, peas, chick Amount Approx. peas, lentils, baked beans, peanuts, pears, oranges, sweetened
Depending on digestibility, low glycemic index foods may be consumed 30 to 60 minutes before your workout. Remember, if you are going to experiment with high and low glycemic index foods, do so at practices, not during competition. *Indicates brand names, commercially available products The list below provides you with examples of some good sources Protein is another important macronutrient, which is also involved with providing you with energy. Protein is what mostly makes up your muscle mass, but is also important for metabolic functions in your body. If you eat too little protein, a lot of negative consequences can occur to your health and definitely to your A typical amount of protein required for an athlete is about 0.5 to Fish, flounder, baked 0.9 g protein per pound of your body weight. So, if you weigh 140 pounds, you require anywhere from 70 g to 126 g of protein per day. You can also figure our your protein needs as a percentage of your total calories intake. So, for example, if you consume 2,000 calories, 15% of 2,000 is 300 calories, which is 75 g of protein ( there are 4 calories of protein per gram; thus 300 / 4 = 75 For health reasons, the best choices of fat are Fat has been given a bad rap in the last few years. Too monounsaturated, like using olive orcanola oils. The many people have become "fat phobic." They believe that second best choices are polyunsaturated fats, like if low fat is recommended, then no fat is better. This is soybean and safflower oils. Finally, consume definitely untrue! Fat is required for a number of saturated and trans fats the least in your diet; these metabolic processes in your body and is especially include, palm oil, butter, palm kernel oil, coconut oil, important in supplying energy. Also, fat provides taste to and hydrogenated oils of any kind. Saturated fats foods and helps you feel less hungry later. So, some fat increase the cholesterol in your blood. Below is a list of with each meal is important in helping you achieve your the grams of fat in oils and some foods. Note, some The amount of fat you need is about 20% to 30% of your Fat
Amount Grams
total caloric intake. If you are consuming 2,000 calories, olive oil then your fat intake range would be: 400 to 600 calories per day from fat. This is about 44 to 67 g of fat per day. (There are 9 calories of fat per gram; thus, 400 to 600 •*• 9 Remember; Watching your portion sizes at all meals will
help you to stay within your caloric requirements.

Getting the right balance of carbohydrates, proteins and fat is
important for peak performance!
B. YE OLDE WATERING HOLE: Achieving Adequate Hydration

Water is the most important nutrient. If the body becomes dehydrated, the
metabolic processes slow down and dont work as well. When you are dehydrated,
an exercise or practice will "feel"difficult.
Wrestlers sometime confuse this feeling with having a "good" workout. This is just
the opposite of what really happens! Dehydrated body cells don’t allow you to put
forth your maximum effort. In fact, a 1% to 2% loss of body weight due to fluid loss
can cause a 15% to 20% decrease in performance!
Signs of dehydration include rapid heart rate, weakness, excessive fatigue, and
dizziness. Dehydration can be dangerous. Exercising or practicing in a dehydrated
condition can lead to heat stroke, muscle breakdown, kidney failure, and even death.
Here are some points to remember about hydration:

If you drink adequate amounts of water or other Fluids should be ingested 2 hours before (20 fluids, you will feel better and perform better. oz) and during (8 oz every 15 to 20 minutes) Thirst is a late sign of dehydration. Your Continue to ingest fluids after practice to re- performance could decrease as much as 10% hydrate. Weigh yourself before and after practice; any decrease in body weight is due to a loss in water from the body. Drink 2 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost.
One easy way to monitor your hydration status is to Avoid alcohol andcaffeinated beverages because check the color of your urine. Light yellow in they will promote dehydration. Carbonated good hydration, dark yellow indicates dehy beverages will also decrease the amount of fluid Avoid soft drinks because the added sugar in the Cold drinks are absorbed faster and also serve to cool the body to promote optimal performance Avoid fruit juices in large amounts at one time Water is an appropriate fluid for hydration and re- hydration. A sports drink is fine, and the small fruit juices are a healthy drink and should be amount of carbohydrate in a sports drink can consumed as part of your fluid intake throu provide you with quick energy during long practices FACT OR FICTION: Being Smart about Vitamins, Minerals, and Other Supplements
Many nutritional supplements are marketed to improve performance or to build muscles and lose fat. However, most of these supplements have never been proven effective and could be harmful to your health or performance. Nutritional supplements are often advertised using deceptive and/or misleading claims. They can be marketed without the Food and Drug Administration^ (PDA) review of safety or effectiveness, so, many claims are actually unsubstantiated. The contents of these '^o-called" performance boosters may not be represented accurately on the list of ingredients and can contain impurities or banned substances. These substances could cause a student-athlete to test positive on a drug test without the athlete even knowing he consumed a banned substance! Protein and amino acid supplements Athletes
Selected amino acid supplementsare purported to
ingest a sufficient amount of protein to build muscle increase growth hormone. However, studies have without taking these supplements. Ingesting more found that manufacture recommended doses do not protein will not build more muscle, but will be metabolized by the body. Often these protein Moreover, ingesting only selected amino acids can supplements are combined with special enzymes o r negatively affect the absorption of other essential special protein formulations, like whey prot amino acids, impairing health and performance. of these additives have ever been proven effective, Vitamin and mineral supplements Most scientific
Carnitine, herbal extracts, and special enzyme
evidence shows that selected vitamins and minerals formulations, as well as other substances naturally
occurring in foods, do not provide any benefit to megadoses of these selected micronutrients have performance. Some herbal supplements, like Ma Huang, contain ephedrine which is a drug banned by the NCAA. Ephedrine is a stimulant and is Vanadyl Sulfate (vanadium) is a non-essential trace
sometimes combined with caffeine and aspirin by mineral that has insulin-like effects. It hasnot been athletes who want to lose weight. The PDA has found to increase muscle mass. Furthermore, taking warned that ephedrine has potentially harmful side one mineral can negatively affect the status of other effects such as tremor and disturbances in heart function. Combining ephedrine with caffeine and aspirin will increase the risk of these side effects Creatine may enhance short term high-intensity
HMB (beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl butyrate) is a
exercise. However, the verdict is still out on the metabolite of the amino acidleucine. Only one study found that HMB increased muscle mass and strength periods of time. Creatine can increase body weight, and reduced muscle breakdown during resistance predominantly due to abnormal water retention, whi training. Additional studies are needed to confirm the would probably be disadvantageous for wrestlers w results of only one study. Possible long-term are trying to maintain a low body weight. NOTE: Many high-tech nutritional supplements may seem to be effective at first, but this is likely aplacebo effect - if an athlete believes these substances will enhance performance, he may train harder or work more efficiently. In other words, it is the athletes training and not the supplement that is responsible for enhanced performance. Ultimately, most nutritional supplements are ineffective, costly, unnecessary, and can be dangerous, and impair performance. D. BEFORE THE WHISTLE BLOWS: Preparing for Training and Competition
Just as no two wrestlers perform exactly alike, so too, the optimal caloric need for each wrestler, even in the same weight class, may be different. Yes, caloric need depends on size, but there are many other physiological influences (e.g. resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, other daily activities in addition to wrestling, etc.) which affect caloric needs for optimal wrestling performance. The sample training menus that follow are designed to meet the minimum caloric needs for each weight indicated; they provide approximately 0.86 g of protein per 1 pound of body weight. You are the best judge of your caloric needs based on your performance. Even at your lightest weight, you still need adequate energy, vitamins and minerals. So, if your workouts are sluggish and training is taking a toll, leaving you feeling fatigued for the rest of the day, it may be that you are consuming too few calories. Sample Training Diets:
Sample Diet I - Wrestler of approximate weight of 125 Ibs.
Approximately 2125 calories; 62% CHO (329 g); 20% protein (108 g); 18% fat (42 g) Breakfast
Pre-practice fuel
2 oz. turkey, or roast beef, or practice) Salad with nonfat dressing or 1 6 oz. water Post-practice recovery Dinner
Evening Snack
Sample Diet II- Wrestler of approximate weight of 157 Ibs.
Approximately 2670 calories; 62% CHO (414 g); 20% protein (134 g); 18% fat (53 g) Breakfast
Pre-practice fuel
Post-practice recovery Dinner
Evening Snack
Sample Diet III - Wrestler of approximate weight of 197 Ibs.
Approximately 3349 calories; 62% CHO (519 g); 20% protein (168 g); 18% fat (67 g) Breakfast
Pre-practice fuel
Post-practice recovery Dinner
Evening Snack
pieces, no skin) 1 cup cooked (medium size) 8 oz. skim EATING FOR COMPETITION

If there is insufficient gas, oil, or water in your car, it certainly isn't going to get you very
far or provide maximum performance. In this same way, your body's engine needs
to be well fueled and well hydrated to maximize your power, concentration, and
overall potential on the mat. The following offers suggestions for a winning
performance. See "FUELING UP" section (pages 9-10) for details on glycemic index
categories and examples of food high in carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
The Day Before a Match
Sample of Performance Snacks
Two Hours before bedtime (especially if there is no A few graham crackers with peanut butter, or I/a turkey sandwich, or a package of an instant breakfast Drink 18-20 ounces of water or sports drink Eat a performance snack consisting of low glycemic Match or Training Day
4—5 hours before: 600-1000 calories: eat high carbohydrate (120-200 grams), moderate protein (7- 14 grams) and moderate fat (<15 grams) foods 1 !/2- 2 hours before: 250-350 calories: eat high carbohydrate (30-60 grams), low protein (<7 grams) Match is at 2 pm, then: Breakfast (4-5 hours From Weigh-in to Match
Sample of Between Match Foods:
dry cereal, bagel, jelly beans, graham crackers Limit fat (< 5 grams) Limit protein (< 7 grams) After the Match
Follow the three R's of Recovery:
The first 15 minutes after strenuous activity are the most critical for replacing carbohydrates and building Replenish: your muscles with carbohydrates like fruit juice or carbohydrate-loading beverages (0.2 to 0.7 grams carbohydrate/lb of Note: High fat, empty calorie foods and beverages like candy bars, pastries, carbonated beverages Repair: your muscles to prevent injury by consumed immediately after an event may not continuing to drink water or fruit juice and supply the proper amounts of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and fluids needed to enhance recovery. In addition, alcohol slows down the along with foods containing proteins and recovery process and may increase the risk of injury
F. ROAD WARRIORS: Eating on the Road
Menus at Fast Food Restaurants are always changing. However, the following are your BEST
Orange juice; low fat/skim white or chocolate milk; Bagels; English muffin with jelly; low fat fruit yogurt; Italian bread slices; salad; Italian dressing; salsa;
Pancakes; scrambled eggs; cereals; turkey, ham, or
Butter; hashbrowns; bacon/sausage; French fries; roast beef sub (hero, grinder); thick-crusted veggie special sauces; cheese sauces; mayonnaise; creamy pizza; charbroiled chicken sandwich; chicken fajita; baked potato; chili; plain hamburgers; pasta with dressings; tuna subs (heros, grinders); extra cheese tomato-based sauce; soft taco (burrito) with rice and beans with either: meat sauce, or cheese, or sour cream

Don't forget to include a couple of cups of water at Note: A, B, C's of baked potatoes: A. the skin
vitamins and minerals B. a large baked potato between 6 and 8 grams of protein C. 1 tablespoon one sixth the fat of 1 teaspoon of Many fast food restaurants now have 'lite" options
which means they have reduced the fat used in preparation.
These can also be good choices, so look for them on the menu!
French Toast Hot & cold cereals Pancakes Donuts Bacon Fruit Toast/Bread 100% Fruit juice Bagels Pastries Fried eggs Low fat milk (Chocolate ok) Boiled egg Mid - Morning Snack
Pretzels Gatorpro* Bread Low fat
Yogurt Power Bars* Boost*
Sandwiches (make tripledeckers - 3 pieces of bread, but not 2 servings of meat): Ham salad 100% Fruit juice
Fruit Cheese (2 slices max)

Pre-Practice/Pre-Competition Snack

(2 hours before event)
Chicken, fish, lean beef Tortillas/chapati Evening Snack
The choice is yours! If you're going to eat low Remember: Don’t overdo it! This is not a substitute for performance foods, this is the safest time of day to do it (providing that you don't have early morning practices). * These are brand names, commercially available products
** These items are the LEAST HELPFUL in athletic performance. Limit how much and how often you eat them.
Post-event eating is just as important as pre- Remember to drink water and 100% fruit juice event eating to assure adequate recovery throughout the day. Thirst is not the first and decrease risk of fatigue and injury over indicator of dehydration. Your body can be dehydrated long before you ever feel thirsty. Consume 100% real fruit juice in place of fruit juice drink, fruit juice cocktail, fruit drink, or fruit Eat fruit or pretzels in place of chips. Drink water in place of soda or pop (sodas and pops, especially cola-types, may promote No time, not hungry, nerves before a big Water, Gaterlode* and oranges, bananas, or pineapple juice within the first 15 minutes after practice/competition help you rehydrate, re- making it a habit to consume a liquid meal energize your muscles, and decrease muscle supplement likeBoost*, Gatorpro* or Carnation Instant Breakfast* (mixed with skim milk or water) instead of skipping a meal or snack. * indicates brand names, commercially available products.


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