Lesson 4. Understanding Animal Health Medications and Equipment
California Academic Standard. Science—Grades 9 through 12—Investiga- tion and Experimentation—Standard 1m: Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions
and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the
content in the other four strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investiga-
tions. Students will: Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing
data, and communicating the findings. Examples of issues include irradiation of food, cloning of ani-
mals by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in Cali-
California Agriculture Standard. C9.5: Agriscience Pathway: Understand
the legal requirements for the procurement, storage, methods of application, and withdrawal times of
animal medications, and know proper equipment handling and disposal techniques.
Student Learning Objectives. Instruction in this lesson should result in stu-
dents achieving the following objectives:
1 List and explain common classifications of animal medicines. 2 Explain the legal requirements in procuring, storing, and applying animal medi-
3 Discuss the importance of withdrawal times. 4 Demonstrate proper handling of equipment and disposal techniques. California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 1
List of Resources. The following resources may be useful in teaching this lesson:Recommended Resources. One or more of the following resources should be selected to
Gillespie, James. Modern Livestock and Poultry Production, 7th Edition. Clifton Park,
Lee, Jasper S., Jim Hutter, Rick Rudd, Lyle Westrom, Amanda R. Patrick, and
Austin M. Bull. Introduction to Livestock & Companion Animals, 3rd Edition.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Interstate, 2004.
Other Resources. The following resources will also be useful to students and teachers:
Herren, Ray V. The Science of Animal Agriculture, 2nd Edition. Clifton Park, NY:
Lawhead, James and MeeCee Baker. Introduction to Veterinary Science. Clifton Park,
Lee, Jasper S., Gary J. Burtle, and Michael E. Newman. Aquaculture, 3rd Edition.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Interstate, 2005.
McGlone, John and Wilson G. Pond. Pig Production, Biological Principles and Appli-cations. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2003.
Warren, Dean M. Small Animal Care and Management. 2nd Edition. Clifton Park,
Beef Quality Drug Medication Management and Withdrawal Table—
California Veterinary Medical Association—www.cvma.net
Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA)—www.fda.gov/cvm/
Database of Approved Animal Drug Products—dil.vetmed.vt.edu/
List of Equipment, Tools, Supplies, and Facilities
ü Examples of animal medicines or labels and syringes and other equipment that would be
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 2
Terms. The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics):
Interest Approach. Use an interest approach that will prepare the students for the
lesson. Teachers often develop approaches for their unique class and student situations. An example of an interest approach to open a discussion about the products used topromote animal health. Ask students about the medicines that are used with theirfarm or companion animals. Have them name examples of medicines their animalsreceive and why the animals are given these medicines, such as help the animaldevelop immunity or to treat a disease. Ask students to indicate who administers themedications and how they are administered. Ask students why only veterinariansmay administer some medicines. Once students have offered input in these areas,move into the objectives for this lesson. Use TM–A or the writing surface to presentCalifornia AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 3
Objective 1: List and explain common classifications of animal medicines. Anticipated Problem: What are the common classifications of animal medicines?
I. Animal medicines must be properly used to assure that the desired results are obtained.
These results relate to the quality of the medicine, safety of the product and its use, and effi-
cacy (effectiveness). Further, such products should not cause environmental damage or
create unnecessary residues in foods. Animals may need medication to help them resist or
overcome disease. A medication is a substance used in preventing and treating disease.
Those used with animals are often referred to as veterinary medications or medicines. A
veterinary medication is one that is not licensed for use with humans in its current form.
A. Animal medicines are often referred to as veterinary medicines or drugs. A veterinary medicine is any substance or mixture of substances which is used made, sold, or repre-
sented as suitable for preventing or treating diseases in animals or restoring health.
Many kinds of products are included. 1. Overall, veterinary medicines can be classified into four categories based on how the
a. Prescription only—Veterinary medicines in the “prescription only” classifica-
tion are drugs that may only be sold by veterinarians or by pharmacists with a
prescription from a veterinarian. “Prescription only” drugs require special pre-
cautions to avoid unnecessary risk in their use and assure that they are used
properly. Such drugs should be administered by veterinarians.
b. Pharmacy—This classification includes veterinary medicines that may dis-
pensed or sold by pharmacies and are those that require the giving of advice
regarding risks, undesirable reactions, conditions of safe storage and use, and
conditions. Pharmacies also include those of veterinarians.
c. Authorized dealer—This classification includes veterinary medicines that may
be sold by licensed or authorized dealers only in unopened packages as prepared
by the manufacturer. Such dealers include pharmacies, veterinarians, or other
seller who is licenses or authorized to do so.
d. General sale—A veterinary drug in the “general sale” classification may be sold
by any person or business in unbroken packages as prepared by the manufac-
2. Laws and regulations require proper use of animal medicines. The uses of some
medicines are quite restrictive and must be done by a licensed veterinarian. A
restricted substance is one that is available only to a veterinarian or other qualified
individual. Restrictions have been made to protect the uncontrolled release of sub-
stances that may pose severe hazards. Veterinarians may dispense the medicines or
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 4
they may write prescriptions so that pharmacies can sell the drugs. Some medicines
are readily available and are known as over-the-counter drugs. An over-the-counter drug is one that can be obtained and used by any individuals without specific train-
ing in veterinary medicine. Those medicines in the “authorized dealer” and “general
sale” classification are often sold over-the-counter. Restrictions on the use of medi-
cines is to protect animals and their products, humans, and the environment. Infor-
mation about restrictions is printed on the label of animal medicine containers.
B. Several kinds of veterinary medicines are available. Some are much more highly regu-
lated than others. 1. A biologic is a therapeutic agent made from living organisms and used to increase or
optimize immunity in animals. Its purpose is to promote the development of
immunity in an animal so that it will later resist disease should it be exposed. (A
therapeutic agent is a substance used to treat a disease or disorder.) Common
biologics include vaccines, bacterins, and antitoxins. Biologics may be administered
to animals by injection, in food or water, or other ways that allows the active material
to enter the body of the organism. The manufacture, distribution, sale, and use of
most biologics is regulated by Federal law.
2. A common substance used in treating disease is the antibiotic. An antibiotic is a sub-
stance of biologic origin that takes action against bacteria. Antibiotics are used to treat
animals with certain diseases. Proper diagnosis is essential. The best known antibiotic is
penicillin though streptomycin, amoxicillin, and ampicillin are also used. Antibiotics do
3. A pesticide is a substance that is used to control parasites in or on animals. Worms are the
major kinds of internal parasites, and are controlled with anthelmintics. External para-
sites include ticks, fleas, fungi, and other organisms that live and grow on the skin, hair,
or other exterior surfaces of living animals. As poisons, pesticides must be used properly
to avoid injury to the animal being treated as well as create excessive residue on the ani-
mal and in the environment. Pesticides that are sprayed on, sprinkled on, or otherwise
applied to animals are known as topical medications. The manufacture, distribution,
sale, and use of pesticides is regulated by Federal law. Some pesticides are over-the-
counter drugs. Others require users of pesticides to undergo training and gain a license
4. A disinfectant is a substance that is used to kill bacteria or other microorganisms. They
are sometimes known as germicides. Carbolic acid (a phenol material) is a common—
though highly poisonous—disinfectant made from coal tar and its oils. Cresol, iodine,
pine oil, chlorine, and formaldehyde are fairly common disinfectants. Copper sulfate is
a disinfectant sometimes used as a pesticide for treating fish. Some disinfectants are
5. A sulfonamide is a therapeutic agent that stops the growth of an infecting organism at a
level that is not poisonous to the host. Sulfur is one of the ingredients in sulfonmides
that are common known as sulfa drugs. Several sulfonamides are available. California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 5
6. Dietary supplements are sometimes used as animal medicines. These provide needed
vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients needed by animals to resist and overcome disease.
Most dietary supplements are over-the-counter products. Use TM–B or the writing surface to list and summarize the classification of veterinarymedicine. Use TM–C or the writing surface to list and summarize concepts ofrestricted substance and over-the-counter medicines. Bring examples of labels fromanimal medicines that have restricted use, that are over-the-counter medicines, andthat offer other information on use. Review these labels and help students interpretmeanings. Use TM–D or the writing surface to list and define the major kinds of vet-erinary medicines. As possible, have labels of the samples available. Anotherapproach is to invite a veterinary medical professional to serve as a resource personas discuss the restrictions and use of veterinary medicines.
Objective 2: Explain the legal requirements in procuring, storing, and applying animal
Anticipated Problem: What legal requirements should be followed in procuring, storing,
II. Always follow the applicable regulations and appropriate practices in procuring, storing,
A. Several Federal government agencies have responsibilities for animal medicines. In
addition, state governments as well as industry associations may enact laws, standards,
and provisions related to the use of animal medicines. These agencies have regulations
that should be followed in procuring, storing, and applying animal medicines. Individu-
als who use such products are responsible for knowing and following the appropriate
regulations for the products. Further, agencies that regulate veterinary medicines have
enforcement authorities appropriate to the product and the mission of the agency. 1. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for regulating the manu-
facture, distribution, and use of animal drugs and animal feed. Regulatory programs
of the FDA are intended to assure compliance with existing laws. (The FDA is an
agency within the Department of Health and Human Services.)
a. The Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) within the FDA regulates the manu-
facture, distribution, and use of animal drugs. New drugs are approved based on
data that are typically provided by a drug company. Drugs must be used in food-
producing animals to assure that treated animals are free from potentially harm-
b. Since many animal products are used as food, the Center for Food Safety and
Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) in the FDA conducts research and develops stan-
dards related to food. This includes assuring food safety. One area of food safety
is the presence of residues from animal medicines in milk, meat, and other ani-
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 6
2. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) maintains two agencies with some
a. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) regulates all veteri-
nary biologics distributed in the United States.
• The medicines include veterinary vaccines, bacterins, allergins, antibodies,
antitoxins, toxoids, certain immunostimulants and cytokines, natural or syn-
thetic immunizing substances such as carbohydrates, proteins, genes or
genetic sequences, and test kits for disease diagnosis. Of course, other prod-
ucts are used as animal medicines and are not covered by these regulations.
• Overall, it is unlawful to prepare, sell, barter, or exchange worthless, contami-
nated, dangerous, or harmful veterinary biologics or ship to unlicensed veteri-
nary biologics for experimental use on animals. Always legally buy and use
• APHIS has an extensive inspection program of manufacturing sites, testing
and release of product batches, and monitors veterinary products after licens-
ing to ensure purity, safety, potency, and effectiveness.
b. The Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for ensuring that meat,
poultry, and egg products are safe for consumption. These regulations include
assuring that such products do not contain residues of animal medicines that
would pose problems with human health or the safety of the products as food.
3. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for registering or
licensing all pesticides. Provisions of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires the EPA to register pesticides for specific uses
that are deemed safe. Such uses and restrictions are included on the label of the pes-
ticide so that use of the product does not pose a threat to human health or the envi-
ronment. All pesticides sold or distributed in the United States must be registered.
a. It is illegal to use a pesticide in a manner inconsistent with the label on the prod-
b. Places where pesticides are manufactured must be registered.
c. The EPA sets tolerances or maximum legal limits for pesticide residues in food
commodities and animal feed to ensure reasonable certainty of no harm to con-
sumers from pesticide residues in food. Some of the residues may be from ani-
4. States may impose additional requirements on the use of veterinary medicines.
States are responsible for licensing veterinary medical personnel with the authority
B. Storing is the process of keeping veterinary medicines after the have been obtained until
they are used. How products are stored should promote their quality, safety, and effi-
cacy. The labels on containers indicate the conditions under which a product is to be
stored. 1. Always buy products that have been stored properly and are within the use-by date
printed on the label. The quality, safety, and efficacy of veterinary medicine can be
destroyed before you buy it if it hasn’t been stored properly by the dealer, pharmacy,
or veterinary office. Products beyond the date of recommended use may no longer
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 7
be of high quality, safe, and effective. Destroy old products following directions on
2. Determine storage conditions from the label. Some veterinary medicines must be
kept refrigerated. If so, be sure that the temperature is within the recommended
temperature range for the product. During transport, keep those requiring refriger-
ation in a cold pack or ice chest. Those veterinary medicines not requiring refrigera-
tion should be stored properly to prevent deterioration. Such products may be
stored on shelves in dry areas where they are not expose to warmth and cold. Nor-
mal room temperature is usually satisfactory for those not requiring refrigeration.
3. Do not store veterinary medications in the same area as feed and water. In case of an
accidental spill, the feed could be contaminated by the medications. This could be a
4. Always store veterinary medicines in their original containers with labels attached.
This prevents getting products mixed up as well as provides information in case it is
5. Some products are sensitive to light. Exposure to light will cause the products to lose
their efficacy. Most packages are made of materials that are impervious to light and
will offer the needed protection if the products are left in the packages.
6. Always buy only the amount that will be used within the time specified on the “use-
by” date. If too much is bought, the excess may get too old to use.
C. Veterinary medicines must be used properly and for the purpose for which they have
been approved. In some cases, only veterinarians can use certain medicines. Regardless,
always follow the appropriate practices depending upon the kind of drug. Use TM–E or the writing surface to list important terms and concepts. Have studentsrecord information in their notebooks. Examples of labels from veterinary medicinecontainers may be brought to class and discussed.
Objective 3: Discuss the importance of withdrawal times. Anticipated Problem: What is withdrawal time? Why is withdrawal time important?
III. Withdrawal is stopping treatment with a particular veterinary medicine. Withdrawal time is
the period before harvest when an animal should not receive a veterinary medical treat-
ment. The days between the last administration of a medicine and the day of harvest allow
an animal’s system to naturally purge itself of residues of medications. The amount of prod-
uct remaining in the animal is below the level established by regulations. This assures that
the product is safe to use for human food or other use. Withdrawal applies to animals har-
vested for meat as well as products such as milk and eggs.
A. Withdrawal time applies to most all veterinary medicines regardless of how they may be
administered. Injected medicines, orally-administered medicines (including those in
feed), those applied to the skin, and those given in other ways require a minimum with-
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 8
drawal time. The length of time varies with the product. Always read and follow with-
B. Withdrawal times are usually reported in days. A withdrawal day is a 24-hour period
that begins the last time an animal receives or exposed to a veterinary medicine, includ-
ing pesticides. The time of a day begins at the time of the last administration of the prod-
uct. Here is an example: If a treatment for a product with a 5-day withdrawal time is
completed at 10:00 am on Friday, the first day of withdrawal will be completed at 10:00
am on Saturday. The fifth day of withdrawal will be reached at 10:00 am on the follow-
C. Withdrawals of water- and feed-administered medications require extra care.
1. With feed, feeding of the animal must continue after withdrawal has begun. All feed
containing medication must be removed from animal feeders at the time withdrawal
begins. Feed that does not contain medication is then provided.
2. With water, the same applies to medications administered through drinking water as
with feed. All waterers must be flushed out to remove any traces of the medications.
D. Animal products are subject to laboratory testing to assure that residues above the toler-
ance level do not remain in meat, milk, and other products. Use TM–F or the writing surface to list important terms and definitions. Invite an ani-mal producer to serve as a resource person and discuss withdrawal time. Bring exam-ples of labels from veterinary medicines to class for students to determine with-
Objective 4: Demonstrate proper handling of equipment and disposal techniques. Anticipated Problem: What techniques are used in the disposal of veterinary medicine
IV. Veterinary medicine equipment must be properly disposed of following its use if it is not be
used again. Failing to do so can result in the spread of disease and injury to other animals
and people. Some equipment can become infected with infectious agents that can be trans-
ferred by the equipment to other animals. Improper disposal may also result in environ-
mental damage. Equipment that is used again must be autoclaved or otherwise sterilized to
prevent the transfer of disease from one organism to another.
A. Veterinary equipment may be designated as a biohazard. A biohazard is a biological
agent that poses a hazard to humans and other living things. Use veterinary medical
equipment may have microorganisms that present that can be transferred to other
organisms. Some equipment may pose hazards for physical injury such as cuts or skin
punctures. Examples of equipment which may pose biohazards include needles and
syringes, suture needles, catheter stilettes, and surgical cutting instruments such as scal-
pels. Collectively, these instruments may be referred to as sharps. A sharp is a pointed or
bladed device that readily punctures or cuts the skin or a piece of broken glass equip-
ment. These can accidentally create injury if not used and disposed of properly. California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 9
B. Proper needle and syringe disposal are likely most critical. Most vaccines are adminis-
tered by disposable equipment though some are administered with re-usable equip-
ment. A disposable syringe contains the amount of medication that is to be adminis-
tered. The needle attached to the syringe penetrates the skin, muscle, and/or other tissue
to apply the medicine. The needle is hollow and allows the liquid in the syringe to move
through it into the tissue. Contacts with body fluids as well as the medicine may result
in surfaces containing hazards substances.
C. Many facilities have disposal containers for biohazards. Needles and other equipment
should be placed in these biohazard disposal containers. Once the containers are full,
they are shipped away for proper disposal or are picked up by a disposal service.
D. Equipment that poses hazards may be disposed of by incineration. Incineration is car-
ried out in an incinerator that uses high temperature to reduce materials to ashes. Veter-
inary clinics or hospitals may have incinerators or contract with incinerator services.
E. Some non-hazardous equipment may be disposed of in trash cans and sanitary landfills.
F. Never leave needles, syringes, and other sharp or biohazard equipment lying around or
Use TM–G or the writing surface to present terms and major concepts. Have studentstake notes on the content. A veterinarian may be used as a resource and discuss how
Review/Summary. Focus the review/summary of the lesson around the student
learning objectives. Call on students to explain the content associated with each objective. Use
their responses as the basis for determining any areas that need to be covered again. Questions at
the ends of the chapters in the recommended textbooks may also be used in the review process.
Use the lab sheet in reviewing and reinforcing student learning.
Application. Application can involve student activities using the attached lab sheet and
activities in the supervised agricultural occupational experience program.
Evaluation. Evaluation should focus on student achievement of the objectives for the
lesson. Various techniques can be used, such as student performance in class and the lab sheet. A
Answers to Sample Test:Part One: Matching
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 10
1. The features of veterinary medicine that should be promoted by how it is stored are qual-
2. Information on how to store a veterinary medical product is found on the label of the con-
3. The four categories of veterinary medicine are: prescription only—sold only by pharma-
cists by prescription or veterinarians; pharmacy—sold by licence pharmacies; authorized
dealer—sold by licensed dealers, pharmacists, and veterinarians; and general sale—sold
by any person or business in an unopened package. California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 11
Instructions: Match the term with the correct response. Write the letter of the term by the definition.
_______1. The period before harvest when an animal should not receive a veterinary medical treatment. _______2. A biological agent that poses a hazard to humans, animals, or the environment. _______3. A pointed or bladed device that can cause injury. _______4. Any substance or mixture which is made, used, sold, or represented as suitable for preventing or treat-
ing diseases in animals or for restoring health.
_______5. Available only to a veterinary or other authorized individual. Instructions: Provide the word or words to complete the following statements.
1. A _________________ is a substance that is used to control parasites in or on animals.
2. A _________________ is a substance used in preventing and treating disease.
3. A _________________ is a substance that is used to kill bacteria or other microorganisms on surfaces.
4. A __________________ is a therapeutic agent made from living organisms and used to develop immunity
5. An _________________ is a substance of biologic origin that takes action against bacteria.
6. The Center for ____________________ ________________ within the FDA regulates the manufacture, distri-
Instructions: Answer the following questions.
1. What three features of a veterinary medicine should be promoted with how the medicine is stored?
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 12
2. Where is information found on how to store a veterinary medicine?
3. What are the four categories of veterinary medicines based on how products are sold and applied? Briefly
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 13 t List and explain common classifications of animal medicines. t Explain the legal requirements in procuring, stor- ing, and applying animal medicines. t Discuss the importance of withdrawal times. t Demonstrate proper handling of equipment and disposal techniques. California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 14 t Prescription only t Pharmacy t Authorized dealer t General California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 15 t Restricted substance—one that is available only to a veterinarian or other qualified individual. t Over-the-counter drug—one that can be obtained and used by individuals without specific training veterinary medicine California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 16 t Biologic—a therapeutic agent made from living organisms and used to develop immunity t Antibiotic—a substance of biologic origin used to treat diseases caused by bacteria t Pesticide—a substance used to control pests t Disinfectant—a substance used to kill bacteria and other microorganisms on surfaces t Sulfonamide—a therapeutic agent that stops the growth of an infecting organism t Dietary supplements—substances that provide needed vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 17 t Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ¢ Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) ¢ Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition t U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) ¢ Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ¢ Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) t Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 18 t Withdrawal Time—period before harvest when an animal does not receive a medicine t Withdrawal Day—24-hour period that begins after the last time an animal receives a medicine California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 19 t Biohazard—a biological agent that poses a haz- ards to humans and other living things t Sharp—a pointed or bladed device that can punc- ture or cut skin; proper disposal is essential California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 20
Use resource materials or web sites to determine withdrawal times for the following vet-
erinary medicines and species of animal. Write the number of days of withdrawal in the
space provided. Record clarifying information as appropriate. (Helpful web sites include
the following:http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/beef/g1314.htm; www.porkboard.org; www.aquanic.com; and
California AgriScience Lesson Plan Library Lesson D4.4 • Page 21
Endodontic Topics 2002, 3, 52–66 Copyright C Blackwell Munksgaard Printed in Denmark. All rights reserved ENDODONTIC TOPICS 2002 Are antibiotics effective for endodontic pain? An evidence-based review Although antibiotics are frequently prescribed to treat endodontic pain patients, there is little evidence fromthe clinical literature to support this indication. This review focuses
EVENTI CULTURALI Il collezionista di… bionde, rosse e brune Una curiosa mostra di lattine di birra alla galleria Art Action di Anna e Gero. Valeria Casarotti-Teresa Garofalo I l collezionismo è un fenomeno assai diffuso,dettato da bi- sogni di carattere estetico, scientifico e psicologico. Si col-leziona per motivi di lucro ma più spesso anche solo permotivi