Biology 160: test #1 chemical principles and cells

Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Which of the following levels would contain members that are the most similar to one another (the least amount of variation among members)? a. class b. kingdom c. phylum d. family 2. Evolution is a very controversial idea among both scientists and nonscientists. a. true b. false 3. In what family are humans classified? a. hominidae b. chordata c. primates d. Homo 4. What is the role of fossils in supporting the theory of common descent? a. There are not enough fossils to support this theory. b. There have been fossils of intermediate types (e.g., horses) discovered that provide strong support for the theory of common descent. c. There are plenty of fossils to show that animals have evolved, but there are not enough fossils of human ancestors to suggest that humans are related to other animals. d. Fossil evidence has been found to support the relationship between humans and other primates but only in Europe. 5. In a tree showing common descent, the branching points of the tree represent: a. a modern species. b. the origin of a new species from an ancestral form. c. an extinct species. d. a common ancestor of a group of modern species. 6. In studying a species of fish, a structure is discovered that has no apparent function. If this is a vestigial structure, what would you find in at least some relatives of this fish? a. The structure should be absent. b. The structure should be present and also have no function. c. A similar structure should be present, but it would be larger and have a function. d. The structure should be absent from fossils of ancestors of this species. 7. The most important reason that one can see evolution in a population of mosquitoes more easily than one can see evolution in a population of squirrels is because mosquitoes: a. have a shorter generation time. b. are exposed to toxic chemicals. c. feed on blood. d. lay eggs rather than bear live young. 8. Which statement best describes the now-discredited hypotheses of Lamarck? a. All life was created in the form we see today. b. Modern life forms are the descendants of past individuals who were the most fit. c. Organisms acquire traits during their lifetime and pass those traits on to their offspring. d. Earth is extremely old and has undergone many changes. 9. The person who also proposed a mechanism for evolution similar to Darwin’s natural selection was: a. Charles Lyell. b. Jean Baptiste Lamarck. c. Alfred Russel Wallace. d. Anaximander. 10. Which of the following levels would contain members that are the least similar to one another (the highest amount of variation among members)? a. class b. genus c. phylum d. family 11. Which of the following groupings are in correct order from broadest to most narrow? a. kingdom, species, genus b. class, order, family c. family, order, class d. phylum, kingdom, genus 12. Which of the following is a correct rule for writing scientific names? a. scientific names are always in english or german b. the entire scientific name should be capitalized c. scientific names should always include three things: the family, genus, and species d. scientific names are italicized to distinguish them from other kinds of terms 13. According to the theory of common descent, each species on Earth today should: a. look very similar to all other species. b. not have ancestors in common with members of other species. c. have a single ancestor in common. d. have evolved separately from different ancestors. 14. The common ancestor of all life must have had genes for all traits now present in animals today. a. true b. false 15. In what order are humans classified? a. mammalia b. animalia c. chordata d. primates 16. The DNA of cats and dogs is much more similar than the DNA of cats and hamsters. Why is that? a. Cats and dogs have lived together with humans for a longer period of time, so they have grown more similar. b. Cats and dogs are both carnivores and thus take in similar nutrients. c. Cats and dogs have a common ancestor that is more recent than the common ancestor of cats and hamsters. d. The ancestors of cats and the ancestors of dogs evolved in similar environments. 17. Which of the following pairs of organisms would most likely be considered to be the same species? a. two individuals that look similar and produce fertile offspring b. two individuals that look very different and do not appear to mate with one another c. two individuals that look very similar, but produce infertile offspring d. two individuals that look very different and fight with one another 18. The presence of a tailbone in humans and other primates without tails is an example of a(n) ________ trait. a. homologous b. biogeographical c. vestigial d. Linnaean 19. Which of the following shows events in the proper order to reflect how natural selection works? a. A louse population evolves resistance to permethrin; permethrin is used to kill lice; lice become more common in schoolchildren. b. Louse populations become more common in schoolchildren; some lice are resistant to permethrin; permethrin is used to kill lice; lice resistant to permethrin become the most common type. c. Permethrin resistance is common is lice; permethrin is used to kill lice; most lice become sensitive to permethrin. d. Permethrin is used to kill lice; individual lice change in order to survive exposure to permethrin; most lice become resistant to permethrin. 20. Which of the following is an example of macroevolution? a. Humans evolved from primate ancestors. b. Insect pests have become more resistant to insecticides. c. HIV evolved resistance to antiviral medications. d. Bacteria have become more resistant to penicillin. 21. Based on what we observe with sediment deposition, it would be expected that: a. amphibian and reptile fossils would be found closest to the surface. b. fossils of fishes would be found closest to the surface. c. fossils of the most recently evolved vertebrates (e.g., birds and mammals) would be closer to the surface than other more distant vertebrate groups. d. fossils of the most recently evolved vertebrates (e.g., birds and mammals) would be deeper in the ground than other more distant vertebrate groups, which we would find closer to the surface. 22. Which of the following observations of species distribution across Earth support the theory of common descent? a. All continents contain nearly identical organisms. b. Each part of Earth contains life forms perfectly designed for that region. c. One can see similarities in organisms that are found in close proximity, but each population has adaptations that suit the organisms to their particular habitat. d. There are very few similarities among life forms on different tropical islands. 23. Almost as much evidence exists to support the theory of transformation as the theory of common descent. a. true b. false 24. What was the original purpose of the voyage of the HMS Beagle? a. to add to the general knowledge of the animals and plants on Earth b. to gather physical evidence in support of the theory of evolution c. to chart the coast and harbors of South America d. to do experiments to test Lamarck's view of inheritance of acquired characteristics 25. Why were Darwin's ideas so widely accepted by scientists of his day? a. He published his book soon after he returned to England and all his recollections were fresh in his mind. b. Scientists had not been previously aware that small islands in the Pacific had so many life forms. c. Darwin's ideas fit well with what most people already believed about evolution. d. Darwin presented extensive evidence from many areas of biology to support his ideas. _____________________________________________________________________________ Answers: 1. d 2. b 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. c 7. a 8. c 9. c 10. c 11. b 12. d 13. c 14. b 15. d 16. c 17. a 18. c 19. b 20. a 21. c 22. c 23. b 24. c 25. d


Microsoft word - glossario2012_it_final.doc

Glossario Terapie Cocaina Compendio delle terapie per i disturbi legati al consumo di cocaina Autori: Rudolf Stohler, PD. Dr. med., Clinica psichiatrica universitaria di Zurigo Toni Berthel, Dr. med., Psichiatria integrata Winterthur Michael Herzig, sostegno ambulatoriale alle persone tossicodipendenti/trattamento basato sulla prescrizione di eroina della città di Zurigo Peter Bur

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