Microsoft word - abstracts_poster_jure_d.doc

Wondimu Ahmed

The purposes of this study were two-fold: (a) to explore students’ emotional experiences in the
classroom; (b) to examine how appraisals of self-competence and task value relate to these
emotions. To attain this purpose six junior secondary students were recruited as cases. We used
multiple methods to collect data. We used video stimulated recall interview, nonverbal
expressions coding scheme, heart rate changes and self-reports to assess emotions. To assess
students’ competence and value appraisals we used an appraisal questionnaire (adapted from
Boekaerts, 2000). The findings revealed that students experience diverse emotions (e.g.
enjoyment, pride, anxiety, concentration) and that negative emotions appear to be more prevalent
than positive ones. The association between appraisals and emotions tend to be a bit complex.
Both competence and value appraisals appear to evoke emotions independently or interactively.
Rosa Maria Baptista Amaral & Leonor Lencastre

Answering to the demands of the Portuguese national curriculum for ninth grade poetic text
reading, which includes a considerable diversity of poets and poetic styles, and approaching
poetic reading as an integrative activity of the textual universe and the students’ personal
experiences, a teaching/learning program is proposed aiming at promoting comprehension and
self-regulation activities leading to students’ interpretative autonomy. Within reading
comprehension-interpretation two text processing models, the reader response and the
constructively responsive reading model, together with the interactive property model for
metaphor comprehension, provide the main principles for the program design; within
comprehension instruction the transactional strategies instructional method will be implemented.
From a thinking-aloud study, previously developed, and involving 26 ninth graders skilled
Portuguese who interpret three poems with a metaphorical structure were identified some very
specific cognitive assumptions such as reading is thinking, reading is problem-solving and
through selfquestioning previous knowledge is retrieved. Accordingly, the program includes
prediction, conscious metaphorical inference-making and interpreting as main meaning-
construction processes and selfquestioning, underlining, diagramming, hypothesizing,
generalizing and synthesizing as monitoring strategies to be internalized as routines during
interpretation. Within a total of 20 forty five minutes lessons, the thinking-aloud process is in a
first moment modelled by the teacher and then practiced by the students during the poem
analysis. This program will be implemented and evaluated in a Portuguese public school.
Andrea Dömsödy

Knowing some possible ways how learners conceptualize information literacy will allow the
creation of learner-centered, constructivist library instruction, methods, subjects and textbooks.
The research cannot result in adaptive information about conceptions about library if the research
does not investigate relationships from the point of view of information and information literacy
generally and in terms of some preferred resources. So using qualitative methods, this research
tries to describe some potential alternative conceptual frameworks about information literacy and
its subtopics. This recent investigation also intends to prepare methods and equipments for a later
research which is going to scan every age-group, and for teacher librarians to reveal concepts.
Research design includes a questionnaire, with one hundred tasks and questions which are
repeated four direct topics (children’s science, information, library and Internet), and structured
interviews. The types of applied question: metaphors, association chains, concept mapping,
attitudinal and other scales, grading, open-ended questions.
Responses will be recorded to computer words by words and analyzed with a data analyzer and a
statistical software according to a complex system of codes. The quantitative and qualitative
content analysis has two directions, a vertical and a horizontal (questions and children). This
aspect will be applied with regard to the responses as a whole and separately to direct and indirect
(learning, reading, books, computers) investigational topics. The conceptual framework about
information literacy can be assembled from separate conceptions built up of concrete conceptions
of the subtopics and the quality of their connections. One of the most essential questions is which
information resources are also learning resources in children’s conceptions.
“Information Literacy Profile” was work out to show a person’s / a class’s / a social strata’s / a
country’s concepts (not only school achievement) about information literacy according to some
essential indicators, which are mentioned above.
Zsuzsa Duro

Chess is sport, game, art and science at the same time. At present this science is also being
adopted. It may appear as independent science in the improvement of ability. My hypothesis in
my research is that playing chess has positive, improving effect on the physic functions and
partial-abilities. This is transfer effect and can be tested. I do my research among children at
nursery school and pupils of first, second, third and fourth-year, on the basis of comparing with
controll groups. The examined sections: attaining motivation, creativity, intelligence, writing-
moving coordination. I measure motivation with the help of a test consisting of 45 questions,
varied in age-groups and measured in 5-degree Likert-scale. The measurement of creativity was
done with the picture-finishing and circle vice-tests of Torrance’s tests, the intelligence was
examined by nonverbal, child-version test of Raven’s tests, whilst the observation of writing-
moving coordination was fulfilled in accordance with the Diagnostic Development Observation
System. The test is longitudinal. The pre-measurement is followed by post-measurement after a
year. The evaluation of the foregoing results have been made by means of elementary,
polyvariable and thorough tests.
As the pupils in my research live not only in Budapest but also in other regions of Hungary and
they represent different social and cultural surroundings, I consider the results of my research
interesting. Unanimously they suggest the conclusion that chess guarantees such benefits for
students aged 5-8 which cannot be obtained at the same complexity and high-level by any other
activities. The direct aim of my research is to prove the positive effect of chess on the
improvement of children’s skills, in a broader sense, to provide bigger room for the teaching of
chess at school.
Sandra Espino Datsira & Mariana Miras Mestres

Note-taking is one of the most common learning tasks that imply the use of written language,
especially in the higher levels of formal education. Research has shown that note-taking is one of
the tasks most commonly used and accepted by teachers and students alike for the purpose of
learning (Barberà, Castelló y Monereo, 2003, Solé et al, 2005).
Note-taking can be influenced by several factors that affect amongst others how students note
down information, the characteristics of the notes taken, and in particular how these notes are
subsequently used for the purpose of learning. One of the variables that is thought to be the most
relevant is the representations students have of note-taking. Note-taking can be seen as either a
procedure of information gathering, or as a procedure of knowledge construction. The work being
presented forms part of a wider research project in which 65 psychology students of the
University of Barcelona too, part and in which note-taking, its use and learning approach were
studied. In this communication, we present the results obtained in an exploratory study about the
students’ representations of note-taking and its usage and we analyse the relationship between
these representations and the learning approach of the students. Based on the results obtained,
several profiles have been identified about the representation students have of the type and usage
of note-taking. Regarding the relationship between the learning approach and the type and usage
of the note-taking carried out by university students, we will discuss the lack of conclusive results
and we will analyse its possible causes.
Inge Jänen

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide special functions to display maps on computers
(e.g. zoom, overflight, layer, three-dimensional views). Until now it is not clear if these kinds of
map presentation enhance or hamper effective learning when utilized in th academic subject
Geography. According to the Cognitive Load Theory working memory capacity is limited and
the processing of complex information easily can induce a cognitive overload. Therefore the
planned study wants to examine the effect of a complex map versus a map composed of layers,
where information is presented step by step. Moreover, as a classicalaptitude-treatment-
interaction study it will consider the domain specific expertise of thelearners. We presume that
novices will experience a cognitive overload when learning with a complex map (due to high
intrinsic cognitive load), but they may profit from a presentation in layer format. In contrast,
experts are expected to show their best performance when learning with a complex map and
might be impeded by layer format. The topic of the geographical computer-based learning
environment will be site-related factors. High school students shall learn with combined text and
a complex map or with text and map layers. The complex map will show all information about
selected site-related factors at once. However, the layer version first will give a ground plan and
then successively slot in further information about discrete site-related factors. Layer by layer the
map will become more complex until the whole map is built up. The dependent variables in the
2x2-design are knowledge acquisition (difference between pre- and post-test) and experienced
subjective cognitive load. Variables which will be controlled are working memory capacity and
spatial ability.
Orsolya Kálmán

The starting point of this study is a new wave of research in higher education in the 1990s which
resulted in a complex learning model including not only the learning processing strategies,
motivations and concepts of learning but also the regulative characteristiscs of learning. It has
been established that upon entering higher education, in the new learning context the beliefs
about learning change first, leading to a change in learning strategies only later (Vermunt and
Vermetten, 2004).
Based on these findings we think one important task is to understand the belief system of students
better. The three different elements of this system, namely the beliefs about learning, about the
student, and about the knowledge, should be analysed a) separately and also b) in their
interrelations, and c) in the way they change as well. Our analysis focuses not only on the
cognitive but also on the affective and social aspects of beliefs within a constructivist framework.
Our research consists of three major parts: 1) a supplementary inventory about learning (based on
Vermunt’s Inventory of Learning Style, 1994) 2) a narrative analysis of a composition of
students’ life stories and 3) content analysis of students’ metaphors about the meaning of being a
student. The change in the belief system is analysed with a comparison of different cohorts and
with a retrospective interpretation based on the students’ compositions.
At the present stage of our research the analysis shows that the results gained by the inventory
and by the qualitative methods have some contradictions (e.g., beliefs of social construction are
stronger in the inventory than in students’ life stories). The poster presentation focuses on the
comparison of data gained by different research methods and on the evaluation of our methods
and analysing strategies.
Kristin Knipfer

In addressing current socio-scientific issues, science museums are challenged to present the
ambiguity and ambivalence of these topics and to support visitors’ reflective and critical thinking.
In this project, a media terminal was designed to mediate and encourage elaboration on and
opinion formation about nanotechnology (NT). It is assumed that salience of controversial
arguments and opportunity to express one’s own opinion are crucial factors for both learning and
opinion formation. A first study tested the impact of active opinion expression and salience of
on knowledge acquisition and opinion formation in a 2x2-design. Ss interacted with
the media terminal after they had explored the virtual exhibition ‘nanodialogue’: The control
group works on a quiz which asks for facts about NT (1). In condition of salience of arguments
but without expression of their own opinion, participants assign eight statements to corresponding
experts by drag & drop (2). A second group rates NT in general as either “I am in favour of NT”
or “I am against NT” on a rating scale and writes a short statement indicating their opinion about
NT (3). The third group additionally evaluates eight expert statements by ‘agreement’ and
‘relevance’ by means of a rating scale (4). Preliminary results show that Ss of condition 4 have a
broader argument repertoire when asked to list all pros and cons of nanotechnology, and formed
well-founded opinions which are not biased by prior or general attitudes. They also showed more
awareness of controversy in a written statement about nanotechnology. For factual knowledge, no
differences among the conditions could be found. In general, this study could show that active
expression of opinion about a current and controversial scientific topic can enhance knowledge
acquisition and opinion formation - provided that salience of relevant arguments is given.
Imke Krebs & Christian Ostermeier

The results of the TIMS-Study (Baumert et al., 1997) revealed deficiencies in the performance of
German students in mathematics and science. To respond to these problems the pilot-program
“Increasing the Efficiency of Mathematics and Science Instruction” (SINUS) has been
established (Prenzel & Ostermeier, 2006). The aim was to introduce and establish processes of
cooperative quality development at secondary schools throughout Germany and thereby to
improve mathematics and science teaching. The program is distinguished by its problem-
orientated approach. After a successful pilot phase, a phase of scaling-up, called SINUS Transfer,
was initiated. This extensive program aims at disseminating the ideas of SINUS to a larger
number of schools.
One central part of the program evaluation is to analyze the conditions that foster the
dissemination process to a larger number of schools. It is investigated which characteristics of the
participating teachers and which types of activities affect the success of the program.
Participating teachers were asked about their experiences in questionnaire surveys With a major
focus on questions concerning the support SINUS-transfer offered for teachers.
The two central questions of this study are: 1. How do teachers adapt to a program that is based
on self-directed planning, problem solving and on cooperative work with fellow teachers and 2.
What kind of support do they need? According to the teachers’ response we identified several
types of teachers. This classification was based on their different needs for further support. These
results will then be discussed with regard to support structures necessary for fostering the
dissemination process of the program.
Topi Litmanen & Laura Hirsto

The goal of this study was to examine how different kinds of evaluations about studyrelated
personal goals are related to academic achievement. Earlier studies indicate that evaluating goals
as easy to attain and non-stressful predict best results in academic environment. In this study 133
Theology students filled up a revised version of Little’s (1983) Personal Project Analysis
questionnaire at the beginning of their studies. Information about study credits was gathered at
the end of first three years of their studies. The respondents were categorized in to three groups
with a K-means cluster analysis according to their evaluations about the study-related goal. The
groups were named 1) self-fulfillers, 2) committed and 3) non-committed. The self-fulfillers saw
the project as non-stressful, they saw themselves as capable to complete it, but they didn’t
experience progress in achieving it. The committed students evaluated the project as attainable,
stressful and they were progressing in achieving it. The non-committed saw the project as
stressful, they were less capable to complete it and they didn’t experience progress in achieving
it. The self-fulfillers and committed students also evaluated intrinsic reasons as more important
for striving towards the goal. Goal contents also varied between the groups. Goals reported by
self-fulfillers related mostly to learning process, while goals reported by committed students
related most often to graduation. The non-committed students had more goals focusing on areas
outside Theology studies. The committed students completed most courses in their major subject
during the first three years of their studies. The results indicate that autonomic reasons and
perceived capability do not by themselves lead to best results. At least among these students, high
levels of perceived achievement and stress led to most rapid achieving. These evaluations
probably indicate commitment to studies, which is a key element in long-term motivation.

Little, B. R. (1983). Personal projects: A rationale and method for investigation. Environment
and Behavior,
15, 273-309.
Albert Logtenberg


We conduct an experiment to investigate the effects of different types of introductions in history
lessons on situational interest and the generating of student questions. We compare the effects of
eye-witness accounts about an important historical event (containing characteristics that are
believed to contribute to situational interest) with an expository introductory text. Participants are
150 students in higher general secondary education. Students took a pre-test and a brief
questionnaire to measure prior topic knowledge and topic interest. After reading the text, students
are instructed to write down their questions and measured perceived interest and sources of
Keywords: Student questioning, situational interest, text characteristics, learning history.
M. Tim Mainhard

The focus of this study is an exploration of teachers’ perception of class climate in new teacher
class combinations. A qualitative approach was chosen to explore how teachers experience
starting up new classes and how teachers’ perceptions of class climate are grounded in classroom
Four teachers participated with one to them unacquainted class in a case study. Introductory
interviews were conducted and the first three lessons of each teacher where videotaped. After
each lesson an interview was held where the teacher gave his/her general impression of the just
finished lesson. In a video stimulated part of the interview teachers were asked to elaborate on
thoughts, feelings and motivation regarding specific situations. Teachers’ perceptions of class
climate were measured with a shortened version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction
(QTI; Wubbels et al., 2006). Three and a half month after the last interview a story line interview
was conducted with the focus on how teachers experienced the development of the class climate.
As a reference measure for class climate every class completed a shortened version of the QTI
each time a lesson was video taped, and approximately one week in advance of the story line
The first step of the within case analysis will be to examine how teachers ground their
perceptions of class climate in classroom practice of single lessons. The next step is to categorize
and describe the grounding of the teacher perception of single lessons in relation to each other in
order to examine the development of perceptions and grounding. On the cross case level
grounding will be compared across teachers and several covariates will be used in order to
explain differences and communalities across cases. Cases will be treated as separate experiments
(replication logic; Yin, 2003).
Helen Melander


The reported study investigates how situation awareness is constituted in the moment-to-moment
interaction between a student learning to fly an airplane and her teacher, and how the student
learns situation awareness, i.e. the ability to analyse a situation so as to provide ground for
informed decisions about next actions. A view of situation awareness as an interactional on-going
accomplishment is proposed. It is demonstrated how it is socially established and learned in
briefing sessions, in flight lessons in the actual airplane, and in debriefing sessions. Learning is
approached from within a conversation analytic (CA) perspective, building on prior CA research
on the organisation of human interaction.
The empirical material consists of video recordings of flight lessons. Three students (one of them
is in focus in this study) were followed and recorded during a series of briefing sessions, flight
lessons and debriefing sessions. The studied task concerns situation awareness in recovering from
unusual attitudes.
The results show that in the moment-to-moment constitution of situation awareness the
participants rely both on information provided from the instruments, and on how it should “feel”
when recovering. Further, the analysis shows that and how there are micro-longitudinal changes
in the student’s performance of the recovery from the abnormal attitudes – both within the same
flight lesson and over the course of the three lessons. These changes are socially established and
upheld, in interaction between the student, the teacher, and the airplane controls and instruments.
Problems in the pilots’ situation awareness are often reported as a significant contributing factor
to airplane accidents. This study furthers the understanding of situation awareness as an
interactional accomplishment and sheds light on how it is learned in the interaction between
student and teacher, in the different educational contexts.
Petterson, Maria


Evolution is an important component of modern biology. It is complex and can be controversial.
Teaching evolution is an area where alternative understandings are well documented. The aim of
this study is to investigate which content experienced teachers select to make it possible to teach
in upper Secondary School. The content chosen can be related both to pedagogical/educational
considerations on behalf of the students and to contextual matters. In this study a survey with a
list of concepts related to evolution, designed by influence from Skoog and Bilica (2002) and
Zetterkvist (2003) has been presented to experienced teachers. The teachers were asked to A)
state if these concepts were presented in their biology course and B) state which priority the
themes had. In results from 18 teacher’s concepts as Natural selection, adaptation, genetically
variation, diversity, proofs of evolution, speciation, heritage are contents which are emphasized
amongst all teachers, but conflicts in worldview, misconceptions, nature of science, human
evolution, history of science and science in society are by some teachers excluded. From these
results questions emerge: Are there two different strategies, implications of different strategies to
avoid or to meet a controversial issue? One finding of this survey is that the vast educational
research on misconceptions in teaching evolution, is not an major issue in teacher’s choice for
content. These questions that have emerged through this survey will be more elaborated in
interviews with the teachers and in analysed with aims to study reasons experienced teachers give
for their selection of content and subsidiary teaching methods.
Katharina Schwindt & Tina Seidel


In line with current discussions about the professionalization of teachers, competencies in the
perception of classroom situations are regarded as an important factor (Bromme, 1997).
Identifying aspects in classroom interactions that are critical for teaching and learning processes
is a key component for planning and modifying teaching behavior. In this study, the way teachers
analyze videotaped classroom situations is seen as an indicator for their potential to perceive
critical aspects in real classroom situations.
Our research questions are: (1) What are basic aspects for to perceive videobased classroom
situations? (2) What are teacher competencies in the perception of classroom situations? To
develop criteria for a competent perception of classroom situations two approaches were
combined. Rules of scientific observation-methods as well as empirical findings concerning
teacher competencies in the perception of lessons are transferred in criteria for the perception of
videobased classroom situations. Based on these approaches, five competence aspects for the
perception of videobased classroom situations have been distinguished: a) elaboration of analysis,
b) focus of analysis, c) nature of classification, d) quality of documentation, e) elaboration of
valuation. For the description of teacher competencies concerning these criteria, teacher written
protocols in analyzing a classroom video within the computerbased learning environment “LUV”
were investigated. Coding schemes were developed and after a training with two independent
raters and satisfying interrater reliabilities, texts of 83 individuals were analyzed. Through
analyses, teacher competencies in the perception of classroom situations overall are characterized
by the description and the valuation of situations, a focused analysis along given questions as
well as an integration of situations in trivial concepts.
The senior teacher, a forgotten group? Research about professional learning strategies of
senior teachers
Maud Slaats

We know little about teachers learning, although we expect teachers to be lifelong learners
(Bolhuis, 2006). We assume that part of our teachers succeed developing learner strategies, while
others may lack such strategies. Senior teachers are growing and we want to keep them in the
profession as long as possible. We must make use of senior teachers because they are a very
important source of experience and knowledge. With this research we aim to gain a better
understanding of teachers professional learning strategies and we hope to develop an intervention
to help senior teachers developing and or maintaining professional learning strategies.
By doing semi-structured interviews with two selected groups of successful and less successful
senior teachers, in the first stage, we will get an idea of existing learning strategies and how they
are developed. And, on the other hand, we will explore how senior teachers succeed in
developing learning strategies, what helps them and what hinders them to do so.
In the second stage of this research an exploration of existing interventions, in context of
developing professional learning strategies for senior teachers, will take place. Depending on
whether we will find successful interventions we shall improve them by the knowledge gained
from the interviews. If needed it is also possible to start a new intervention. In both cases we will
work with methodologies of design research.
Jenni Stubb, Kirsi Pyhältö & Kirsti Lonka
The process of academic learning is centrally regulated by motivation. Goals are important
regulators of individual action; they regulate what individuals strive for and reflect motivation
(e.g. Dweck & Leggett 1988 [1]; 1999 [2]). Despite the importance of motivation in the process
of learning scientific expertise, the emphasis on the debate on doctoral education has usually been
excellence of performance (e.g. Pyhältö & Soini 2006 [3]; Nummenmaa & Pyhältö 2006 [4])
rather than motivational processes. However, PhD process is centrally a learning process, which
is regulated by motivation. Thereby motivation is in key position in understanding this process
and furthermore in developing post-graduate education.
The aim of this study was to understand the motivation of postgraduates through their goals,
which influence individual action and furthermore the whole learning process. This study is part
of a larger, national research project “From PhD students to academic experts” (2006-2008) in
University of Helsinki, Finland. The participants were 602 postgraduates from University of
Helsinki, Finland, who answered a survey [5], consisting of likert scaled items and open ended
The goals of postgraduates were classified as product goals, process goals and combined goals.
The results indicated that goals varied on the basis of the study context and they were in relation
with study persistence. Postgraduates’ with different kinds of goals also differed in terms of
experienced level of stress, anxiety, exhaustion and lack of interest.
Results indicated that goals were related to the engagement in thesis process. Motivation appears
to be critical in understanding this process and further, developing postgraduate education. It is
important to acknowledge that thesis supervision not only targets cognition, but also motivation.
Anna Tapola

This contribution is a presentation of a ongoing research project that calls attention to the
relationship between ideology and natural science education within teacher education, with
special regard to genetics and gene technology (life-science) and different historical, scientific
and societal contexts. This means, the project touches upon the dialectical relationships between
ideology, power elites, hegemonic structures and certain biological subject matter, with special
focus on the interplay between system and institutional level. Ultimately, the project aims to
elucidate and discuss the educational consequences – pros and cons, risks and benefits – with
regard to modern molecular biology and ideological impact. Methodologically, critical discourse
analysis will be applied in the project, meaning, a modified version of Fairclough’s three-
dimensional model will be used as analytical tool. The project also focuses on human dignity,
Menschenwürde and view(s) on human beings in life-science education within teacher education.
The project’s overall aim is to analyse and discuss why – with special regard to ideological
impacts – human dignity, Menschenwürde and view(s) on human beings are constructed in
certain ways. This also means the project aims to clarify what discourses that are involved over
time and different contexts, and to discuss the educational consequences.
The project focuses on two overall research questions:
1. What constitutes and constructs human dignity, Menschenwürde and view on human beings in
life science education within teacher education?
2. How is this construction related to outcomes from life science research?
Roeland M. Van der Rijst


During the last decades there has been an increasing interest from both researchers in the field of
education and curriculum developers to enhance links between academic research, teaching and
learning. Some educational studies report evidence that support the hypothesis that enhancing the
contribution of academic research in teaching has a positive influence on the development of
various academic competences of students. Science departments at research universities provide
students with authentic research intensive environments in which research exists in close
harmony with teaching and learning.
However many academics responsible for designing science courses at research universities are
not familiar with how to effectively construct learning environments in which harmonious
linkages between research, teaching and learning are realised. Especially at undergraduate level
many difficulties arise for university teachers when constructing innovative learning
environments. A study into relationships between teachers' beliefs and their actions will increase
our understanding, as well as facilitate educational developers with evidence-based tools to guide
and support academics' professional pedagogical development. University science teachers
redesigning undergraduate courses into innovative environments supportive for student learning
provide us with interesting settings to study teachers' beliefs and their actions.
This poster reports the design of a study in which approximately 15 academics will participate.
All participants will be responsible for undergraduate courses and will be selected from within
the different departments of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at Leiden
University in The Netherlands. Teachers' beliefs about dispositions supporting scientific research
and beliefs about learning styles of students will be determined, and related to teachers' intentions
and their actions in classroom. Furthermore the learning environments will be evaluated from a
student experience perspective. A conceptual and chronological representation of the research
design will be presented on a poster, in which methodology and data gathering techniques are
explained in more detail.
Jasmin Warwas

In recent years numerous studies investigated students’ scholastic achievement. Nevertheless
with regard to the upper secondary level we know few about the development of students’
abilities (in particular mathematics and English as two main subjects in German curriculum) after
entering upper secondary vocational schools or vocational Gymnasium. In Germany, these
schools include general education and career-oriented subjects such as economy or technology.
The development of educational achievement is strongly influenced by interests. To consider the
special school type, this study is focused on vocational interests. According to Holland (1997)
there are six interest orientations: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventio-
nal. In a meta-analysis Ackerman and Heggestad (1997) found substantial positive correlations
between math achievement and realistic/investigative interests, and English and artistic/investi-
gative interests. Longitudinal studies do not yet exist. Therefore the following research questions
are addressed: How do achievement in mathematics and English develop until the end of the first
year in a vocational Gymnasium? Is there an impact of math (English) achievement on realistic/
investigative (artistic/investigative) interests and/or the other way round?
A sample of 103 students (51 female, average age 18.3 years) in a vocational Gymnasium
(career-orientated subject: economy) in Germany participated in the study in the middle and the
end of the 11th grade. Each time they completed achievement tests in Mathematical Literacy and
English, and filled in a questionnaire on vocational interests.
Achievement in math turned out to be quite stable regarding the mean, but increased in English
significantly. Mutual influences in a cross-lagged panel between vocational interests and
achievement in English could not be confirmed. However, there were effects of realistic interests
on math achievement and the other way round. The results are discussed with regard to the
curriculum of the upper secondary level. Further measurement points will follow.
Ludger Wedeking

Learning with multimedia-based learning environments is becoming increasingly important in
school, since these types of environments offer teachers new possibilities of conveying learning
contents in their classes (Lowe & Schnotz, 2003).
Consequently, teachers are confronted with more and further developed programmes for
multimedia-based learning environments. These programmes can, however, only be compromise
solutions, because of the multiple factors, such as the subject matter and the group of learners,
which teachers have to bear in mind. Ideally, teachers should generate their own multimedia-
based learning environments adjusted to the specific subject matter and the particular group of
learners, but teachers usually do not possess the required knowledge to edit multimedia-based
learning environments.
Based on the ‘Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning’ by R.E. Mayer (Mayer, 2003) and
further research in this area (e.g. Clark & Mayer, 2003; Lowe, 1998; Lowe, 2003; Ploetzner &
Lowe, 2004; Thissen, 2001), a didactical tool has been developed in this still ongoing study.
Depending on the nature of information that is to be conveyed, the didactical tool makes
recommendations which multimedia possibilities one could use in order to support the learning
process in the best possible way.
Daniel Wessel, Carmen Zahn & Friedrich W. Hesse
Knowledge Media Research Center Tübingen
Museums play an important role in life-long learning with over 100 million visits per year in
Germany alone. Despite its popularity, learning effects are not guaranteed by the visit alone.
Situational interest and post-visit activity are of high importance in this informal setting but
difficult to address due to the heterogeneity of the visitors and the amount of information
available. This study analyses if situational interest and memory can be supported by mobile
devices in allowing visitors to access additional information on the spot and bookmark interesting
exhibits for post-visit reflection and discussion (‘Interest Trail’). In a 2x2 between-subjects
design 62 student study subjects are randomized in one of four conditions: they either have the
possibility to receive additional information in a laboratory exhibition or not and they either can
bookmark interesting information for post-visit reflection or not. Preliminary results indicate that
the additional information was well used if available and that this information leads to longer
visits and improved evaluation of the exhibition in terms of estimated size, detail, excitement,
exceptionality and complexity. Evidence of deeper processing and improved learning was not
found so far, probably due to the high motivation of the students and insensitive knowledge tests.
The Interest Trail was rarely used, probably due to the extrinsic motivation of the students who
were paid for their participation in the study. However, availability of additional information
during the visit led to higher occupation with the topic after the visit. Since the student study
subjects differ from “normal” museum visitors in their high level of education and extrinsic
motivation, a second study will be conducted under field conditions with improved knowledge
Sibel Yesildere

Knowledge construction was searched by many researchers in various domains. This study was
conducted to observe the emergence of mathematical construction process with RBC model of
abstraction. It was aimed to focus on observing the process of construction of mathematical
knowledge rather than its outcomes.
A case study was conducted with a 7 grade student, M, who was asked to work on four tasks
about triangular inequality that were unfamiliar to her. She was asked questions during the study
to make her to reflect on what she was doing. She was videotaped during she worked on the
The case of M showed that it’s important to recognize appropriate constructions to build a new
structure because the trials for the need of a mathematical construction are stemmed from the
structures that were recognized. It’s also important to have mathematical structures which were
constructed correctly.
In M’s case it was observed that construction and building-with epistemic actions occurred
simultaneously which pointed out the nested nature of epistemic actions as emphasized in RBC
theory. M’s case also showed that construction was not the final destination of other epistemic
actions; rather it happened continuously during recognition and building-with epistemic actions.
It was also observed that each of the principal components of the model, the epistemic actions,
were important for constructing. Although constructing is the central epistemic action among
them, recognizing a needed structure for a mathematical construction is also crucial. Recognizing
a previously wrong constructed structure may cause to build a wrong structure. According to
findings newly constructed structure needs consolidation to become more familiar to the learner.
Gerhard Bachmann & Regina Vollmeyer


Performance behaviour in achievement situations can be explained by goal orientation theory and
by the cognitive-motivational process model. Elliot and McGregor (2001) assume competence
and valence as conceptual cores of goal orientation and derive a 2 x 2 framework: 1) mastery-
approach orientation, 2) mastery-avoidance orientation, 3) performance-approach orientation, and
4) performance-avoidance orientation. Goal orientations are considered to be stable traits. The
cognitive-motivational process model proposes that initial motivation, made up of challenge,
interest, probability of success, and anxiety is relevant for performance in learning settings. Initial
motivation is explicitly defined as situational, because it emerges form the task at hand. Since
both models explain performance in learning settings, we were interested in the relationships
between goal orientation and initial motivation. As a second research question we assume that
initial motivation is a better predictor for performance than goal orientation.
23 undergraduate students participated in the study. Twenty-three participants’ goal orientation was measured with the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). The Questionnaire on Current Motivation (Rheinberg, Vollmeyer & Burns, 2001) was used to assess initial motivation after the tasks were explained. Participants had to solve Sudokus (total number of correct answers was used as performance indicator). Our results show that mastery-approach orientation correlates with challenge. Performance-approach orientation related to challenge and negatively to probability of success. Mastery-avoidance orientation related to fear of failure but performance-avoidance orientation and fear of failure did not correlate. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC SELF-CONCEPT AFTER THE
Kirsten Bank


The transition from primary to secondary school is known as a critical moment in students’
careers: Students have not only to deal with new environments (Eccles & Midgley, 1989), but in
Germany after the 4th grade students also enter one of four different types of secondary school
(tracking) mainly based on their performance in primary school. These changes do have
consequences for the academic self-concept: The higher (lower) the intellectual composition of
secondary school, the more likely students’ academic self-concept will decrease (increase),
although students’ actual performance stays equal. This effect is known as the institutional “Big-
Fish-Little-Pond-Effect” (Marsh, 1987). Even though the BFLPE is well proved (e.g. Köller,
2004) the following questions are still unanswered and will be investigated in the present study:
How does students‘ academic self-concept develop directly after the transition to secondary
school? Does the type of secondary school moderate the development of academic self-concept?
The sample contains 323 students of the 5th grade. During six months from the transition to the
first school report, students’ academic self-concept was assessed at eight measurement points
using the standardized questionnaire SESSKO (Schöne et al., 2002). In addition, students’ entry
characteristics, e.g. achievement and goal-orientations were collected.
Confirmatory factor analysis was used in order to test the strong factorial invariance across four
measurement points for the self-concept-scale „general“ using the MPlus program. Factor scores
for all persons were estimated. Difference scores for t3-t1, t5-t1 and t7-t1 were estimated in
consideration of the school types “Gymnasium” and “Comprehensive School”. Results show that
the self-concept decreases in means at the Gymnasium and increases in the Comprehensive
School. Thus, there seems to be better a motivational development in the Comprehensive school
than in the Gymnasium, according to the institutional BFLPE.
Gentiane Boudrenghien
Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium
Transition from secondary to higher education ask students to select a college major. The “career
decision-making process” model (Germeijs & Verschueren, 2006) articulates four decisional
tasks (orientation to choice, exploration, decisional status, commitment) and tests the hypothesis
that the way individuals cope with these decisional tasks has important consequences for
implementing their career decision. Their results suggest that choice commitment is the most
important predictor of the quality of early choice implementation in higher education, but further
research is needed to investigate its antecedents and consequences. Our investigation will be
based on two theoretical frameworks: the goals’ hierarchical structure (Carver & Scheier, 1998)
and the possible selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986). On the basis of their hierarchical organization,
it is supposed (1) that goals at higher levels are intrinsically more important than those at lower
levels and (2) that importance of goals at lower levels increases according to their relation to
higher-order goals. Possible selves (i.e. beliefs about who one might become in the future)
correspond to goals at the highest level of this hierarchy and are particularly salient in life
transitions (Kerpelman, 2006). Our hypotheses are: (1) the importance of a particular career goal
in the goals’ hierarchy is an important indicator of choice commitment; (2) personal striving
level, difficulties experienced and external influences are three potential antecedents of choice
commitment (Vallacher & Wegner, 1989; Emmons, 1992); (3) when the career goal occupies an
important place inside the goals’ hierarchy, early choice implementation increases positively,
whereas academic achievement is negatively influenced, and possible selves dimensions have an
increased impact on choice implementation (Carver & Scheier, 1998; Emmons, 1992). These
hypotheses will be tested in longitudinal and experimental studies. A sample of 400 high school
students (Grade 12) currently participate in an exploratory study. Preliminary results will be
Caroline Bruttin


The CAM (Construction of Analogical reasoning Matrices) test was constructed in order to
prevent memory overload. Children have to construct the right answer by choosing the different
parts composing it. They use a touch screen on which they see the A, B and C terms of a matrix
composed with concrete pictures. All components they need to construct the answer D are
presented on the lower part of the screen, together with a number of incorrect components. This
design allows them to create external memories and therefore to prevent memory overload.

Two versions of the CAM will be constructed: a classical one and a construction one. In the
classical version the participant chooses the right answer among 6 or 8 alternatives. The
construction version is designed in order to prevent the memory overload, because elements are
available on the bottom of the screen and considered as external memories and can be consulted
at any time.
The classical version will be given to students without mental retardation, whereas the
construction version will be attributed to students with moderate to severe mental retardation.
One hypothesis is that the construction version will allow students with mental retardation to
reach the same level of performances as the level of participants without mental retardation who
may encouter the memory overload with the ordinary version.
Hanna Cronjäger

Since students emotions as well as their ability to deal with failure is regarded to be associated
with their performance outcome in other domains (Goetz, 2004; Goetz, Pekrun, Hall & Haag,
2002), this study aims to research both aspects in conjunction in the context of foreign language
instruction. Therefore the study examines whether two learner groups differing in their degree of
self-regulation after failure (i.e. high or low action-orientation) report differences in their
emotions – besides test anxiety – in language instruction. Besides, the temporal stability of
possible differences was investigated.

Therefore, N = 709 sixth graders from 18 high schools located in Hamburg, Germany,
were asked two times over their first three months of learning French as second foreign language
to indicate their experienced emotions in class in a survey study. In addition they were asked to
fill out one subscale of an action-orientation-questionnaire. To control for other influencing
variables on emotional development, students’ sex, domain-specific selfconcepts’ as well as their
former school performance in grade 5 were investigated as well.

ANCOVAs, in which high or low action-orientation was used as independent variable,
reported emotions as dependent variable and students’ sex, domain-specific selfconcepts’ and
their former school performance in grade 5 as covariates, displayed significan findings: Thus
students scoring low in action-orientation displayed a higher degree of negative emotions on t1.
This relationship becomes even stronger in the second measurement, where low action-oriented
subjects showed not only more negative but also less positive emotions in class. Results are
discussed in their relevance for learning outcome.

Goetz, T. (2004). Emotionen und selbstreguliertes Lernen bei Schülern im Fach Mathematik.
Goetz, T., Pekrun, R., Hall, N., & Haag, L. (2006). Academic emotions from a social-cognitive perspective: Antecedents and domain specificity of students affect in the context of latin instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, pp. 289-308 THE ANTECEDENTS OF SITUATIONAL INTEREST: AN INTEGRATIVE
Jean-Baptiste Dayez

Personal interest is one of the most proximal motivators for long-term persistence and
engagement (Harakiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998). Besides, it can developed from a regularly
experienced situational interest (Silvia, 2001; Hidi & Renninger, 2006). Situational interest is
thus an important dimension of motivation. Meanwhile, the issue of interest and its optimal
theoretical framework has no univocal answer (Krapp, 1999) and the literature on this topic is
“eclectic and sprawling” (Silvia, 2005). The different perspectives definitely need to be
integrated or at least clarified. The purpose of the Ph.D. is thus to investigate the antecedents of
situational interest in an integrative way. In order to do it, some first theoretical options have
been chosen. First, we consider interest as one of the basic emotions, arguing that it has the
needed features of an emotion (Izard, 1977; Silvia, 2001). Therefore, appraisal theories of
emotions (Roseman & Evdokas, 2004) are relevant to explore what could be the appraisal
structure of interest, its antecedents. Recent empirical research has shown that two appraisals
elicit interest: novelty-complexity and coping potential (Silvia, 2005), focusing on the appraisal
of the task rather than the actual task. Consequently, it questions some previous models
promoting some types of activities supposed to improve interest (e.g. group work, computers,
puzzles, Mitchell, 1993). Furthermore, we hypothesize that, on the basis of literature on self-
regulation of motivation (Sansone & Thoman, 2005), goal congruence could be an additional
appraisal to look at. Some research indeed suggests that it affects interest (Sansone, Sachau, &
Weir, 1989). In planned empirical studies, we will analyze the three mentioned antecedents of
situational interest in classroom environment (correlational studies between task characteristics,
personal characteristics and interest) and laboratory setting (manipulation of novelty/complexity,
coping potential and goal congruence).
Université catholique de Louvain (U.C.L.)
According to Eccles and Wigfield (2002), the perceived value of a task refers to four
components: intrinsic value, utility value, cost, and attainment value (or importance). This last
component, importance, received less attention both in terms of conceptualization and
operationalization. The purpose of my thesis is therefore to develop the understanding of this
construct and to investigate its effects on well-being. To this aim, we consider two theoretical
frameworks: Carver and Scheier’s (1998) goal hierarchy and Linville’s (1987) self-complexity.
According to Carver and Scheier’s model, the higher a goal is in the hierarchy, the more
important it is because of its centrality for the person’s self-concept. In regard to Linville’s
model, we suggest that the less self-aspects there are in one’s self-concept and the more
interconnected they are, the more important each self-aspect is for the individual. Concerning the
effects of importance on well-being, Eccles and Wigfield (2002) show a positive influence on
involvement in the task, Carver and Scheier (1998) and Emmons (1992) suggest that high order
goals are more likely to produce negative affects and psychological distress, and Linville
suggests that self-complexity moderates the relation between stressing events and well-being. We
therefore make the hypothesis that importance is likely to be both a motivating factor, and a
source of distress. More specifically, we suggest an interaction effect of the importance of a goal
and the rate of progress toward this goal; in case of good progression toward a goal, the positive
feelings will be more intense if importance is high, similarly, in case of difficulties or failure, the
higher the importance is, the more intense the negative feelings will be. This hypothesis will be
tested with (1) beginning teachers in regard to their difficulties during the first months of
teaching, (2) first year university students in regard to their exams results, and (3) individuals in
regard to their performance at a manipulated task (experimental design).
Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge
Eccles, J.S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Emmons, R.A. (1992). Abstract versus concrete goals: Personal striving level, physical illness, and psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(2), 292-300. Linville, P.W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(4), 663-676. INTEGRATING ETHNOGRAPHIC AND PHOTOGRAPHIC RESEARCH METHODS
Allison J. Gonsalves & Margaret Livingstone

This poster outlines the process of co-piloting a study aimed at exploring doctoral physics
students' experiences of identity re/construction through participation in a scientific community
of practice. This research draws on identity theory and feminist post-structuralist theories of
discourse and critical science studies to examine data collected from participant observation,
auto-photography and in-depth ethnographic interviews. The methodology used here was co-
piloted by both researcher and participant. We both explored the process of learning about
identity, and we co-constructed narratives of experience through as series of interviews and
analysis using frequent member-checks. The result of this pilot study was a refined methodology
that will be used in a grander scale to study the experiences of theoretical, observational and
experimental physicists as they engage in the process of gaining membership to the scientific
community. While this study will not be limited to women, it is important to recognize that
women’s marginalization and alienation from physics before they even enter graduate programs
in the discipline indicates that there is something about physics culture that needs to be better
understood if we are to make changes to improve women’s experiences. The purpose of
conducting this study with members of all genders in the physics community is to identify the
available discourses present in the community that students are able to situate themselves within.
To that end, gender provides an informative lens in this study to understand how minority groups
participate in the physics community, and to examine the identity transformation that students
engage in when moving from new-comer to full-fledged member of the community of practice.
Valeska Valentina Grau Cardenas


The present research is an exploratory study of the relationship between self-regulated learning
(SRL) and conceptual development (CD) of biological concepts in primary school. As such, it
attempts to bring together research related to learning skills and studies regarding learning in a
specific domain in natural contexts. A multiple case study methodology was used, with eight 8 to
9 year-old children belonging to third grade in primary school being followed during one
academic semester of science education within the Chilean curriculum. Throughout this time
repeated individual evaluations regarding the concepts being learned and SRL skills were
conducted. In addition, data was collected during curricular group work session in the
Among the techniques of data collection were interviews, direct observation, videotaping while
children were engaged in individual or group tasks, and collection of material developed by the
children. The activities designed to be observed were based in dynamic assessment evaluation
techniques, which consist of a moment-by-moment evaluation of the learner during problem-
solving whereby feedback can be provided in the context of the activity. The analysis of the
development of SRL and biological conceptions was made through mainly two coding schemes:
one that qualifies different dimensions of SRL and another which assesses the level of conceptual
understanding being observed during the interviews and tasks developed during children’s
engagement in activities inside and outside the classroom.
This study presents evidence of the developmental traces of SRL and CD founded in the cases
studied. It also includes some suggestions regarding the relationship between both theoretical
constructs and the way they interact during learning processes in authentic classroom situations.
Jianpeng Guo


Research about examples and nonexamples in concept learning has flourished in the past several
decades. Mixed sequences of examples and nonexamples are favored over sequences of all
examples in teaching concepts. The study examined the effectiveness of two texts of introducing
a geometry concept to seventh-grade students. One text (VT) was designed by arranging
examples and nonexamples based on the framework of variation theory from phenomenography,
the other one (TT) was a traditional-textbook-like treatment containing examples only. Two
classes of 60 seventh-grade students were recruited in this study. One was given VT and the other
one was given TT randomly. Though students in VT class outperformed those in TT class in
posttest, no significant difference was reported (p > 0.05). Results were discussed and
suggestions were given to revise the VT. (132 words)
Kirsi Juntti & Sanna Järvelä

Empirical research reveal that students face difficulties engaging in learning and achieving their
goals in a variety of learning contexts. To study effectively students need to regulate their
learning process. In spite of strong understanding of self-regulation in learning there is still a
limited understanding about how self-regulation develops in learning context and especially how
motivation regulation contributes to it. This study deals with motivation in self-regulated
learning. The aim is to study how the elementary school students regulate their motivation as they
study science with gStudy computer-based tool. A pedagogical framework for applying gStudy
computer tools and Learning Kits in Science is described and the preliminary results of our first
empirical experiment and intervention among grade three elementary school is reported.
Femke Kirschner
Fred Paas
Paul A. Kirschner


This study considered the limitations of the working memory capacity at the individual level as
an important reason for assigning complex learning tasks to groups rather than to individuals. It
was hypothesized that groups would be able to share the high cognitive load among the group
members, which enables them to work with the interrelated information elements and construct
better cognitive schemata than individuals. In contrast, it was expected that individuals who learn
from carrying out the same complex tasks would need all processing capacity for remembering
the interrelated information elements, and, consequently, would not be able to allocate resources
to working with them. Using 72 pre-university students as participants performing tasks in a
domain of biology (heredity), this study compared individual to group (i.e., triads) learning with
regard to their effects on retention and transfer test performance, and experienced mental effort
(Paas, 1992). The hypotheses that group members would be able to construct higher quality
schemata than individuals was confirmed by the results on the retention and transfer test. The
interaction effect that was found, indicated that, whereas individual learners invested less mental
effort to obtain better retention test performance, group members invested less mental effort to
obtain better transfer test performance. The results are discussed in the context of cognitive load
Ammerentie Kletschkowski


A comprehensive school in the city of Hamburg reformed its pedagogical concept. From the fifth
grade onwards pupils learn in an individualized setting. To support Self Regulated Learning
(SRL) the school provides its students with tools for external regulation. Five interview partners
were chosen from a group of fifth graders. A maximal contrast was sought in the handling of the
autonomy, use of the logbook, as well as in the socio-economic statuses of the parental house and
in the sex of the pupils. Aim of this study is to create types of pupils’ use of the external
regulation to achieve SRL. The school has set itself goals and was set goals by the department of
education. To measure the goals and reconstruct a development two interviews were held with an
interval of one year. The self-evaluation of the interviewed pupils is supported by external
evaluation. For this the students’ logbooks were analyzed with a grid that has been developed to
measure the quantity and the quality of the entries. Pupils that were defined by their teacher as
´handling the autonomy well and using the logbook in a correct way´ did not make better entries
in their logbook, but made more use of the support the setting offered than the pupils who were
defined as ´handling the autonomy and using the logbook poorly´.
Maike Krätzschmar


There are difficulties in adequately dealing with heterogeneous groups of learners in secondary
schools. This is shown by large numbers of pupils who repeat classes or start school age-
inappropriately. Implementing individualised learning and grouping learners in multi-age classes
can be ways to deal with learners’ heterogeneity. Using these instructional arrangements enables
to individualise and differentiate within the group of learners. Multi-age learning often is
operationalised in combination with individualisation. This leads to mixed effects of several
instructional arrangements and unclarity about the effects of multi-age learning alone (Veenman,
1995). Therefore the aim of this study is to obtain clarity about the isolated effects of
instructional arrangements which differently deal with learners’ heterogeneity. Students learning
with (a) traditional comprehensive school instruction, (b) individualised instruction without
multi-age and (c) individualised instruction with multi-age are compared. In this study perceived
satisfaction of basic needs (Deci & Ryan, 1985), learning motivation, and academic self-concepts
are taken into focus. It has been shown that these variables have an impact on learning outcomes
(Pintrich, 2003).
The aim is to detect if there are any differences in the dependent variables in the three
instructional designs and to test whether those differences are stable over time. To measure the
dependent variables fifth graders (N = 425) in five comprehensive schools in the city of
Hamburg, Germany, filled out standardised questionnaires twice with an interval of six months.
Results show differences in the motivational variables depending on the instructional
arrangement: students in the individualised frameworks with and without multi-age show higher
scores in the motivational variables at both times of assessment. When the individualised
arrangement without and with multi-age are compared no additional positive effects for multi-age
can be found.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Need Satisfaction and the Self-Regulation of Learning.
Learning & Individual Differences, 8, 165-184. Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667-686. Veenman, S. (1995). Cognitive and Noncognitive Effects of Multigrade and Multi-Age Classes: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 319-381. INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ON EMOTIONAL REGULATION IN
Veronique Leroy


Interest for studying emotions in the context of learning seems demonstrated, but a lot of
questions are still unresolved (Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002). Studies conducted in other
contexts that the academic one, showed that the experience of positive and negative emotions is
connected to dimensions of personality (Fredrickson & Joiner, 2002; Izard, Libero, Putnam, &
Haynes, 1993; Watson & Clark, 1992). Our hypothesis is that there are interindividual
differences in emotions experienced in learning situation and the commitment in learning
activities. We postulate that these differences are determined by the subject’s personality. The
personality would influence: (1) the kind of emotions experienced, and (2) their intensity.
Besides, we think that individuals differ by their ability to regulate their emotions. This
regulation concerns control of emotional intensity and change in emotional valence.
Paulina Lindström


Illusion of knowing is a phenomenon that may hinder effective learning since participants do not
know when they have missed critical information. One explanation given for the illusion is that
participants do not get a signal of error- a signal corresponding to that something is not
understood. It is predicted that there are emotional responses signaling and that emotional
responses are different in participants with illusion of knowing and participants who correctly
comprehend the text. Initial results shows that participants with the illusion of knowing report
their answer faster and have shorter fixation duration on manipulations in the text. The longer
fixation duration for participants who correctly reads the text may be due to an increased level of
processing required for making the manipulation meaningful and also reflect a more accurate
regulation of processing capacities.


Learning in museums is often socially mediated, goals play a more important role than in formal
settings, and reduced mental resources are available to process information. Technology (study 1:
virtual exhibition, study 2: PDA in a laboratory exhibition, study 3: PDA in a real museum) is
used to make visitor dyads aware of their shared goals and to adapt information to these shared
goals. By way of these two applications more goal-oriented processes of learning (information
selection, conversational elaboration) should cause higher learning outcomes (increased interest,
factual, and transfer knowledge). Two experimental studies are conducted in this dissertation to
confirm the expected learning benefit of awareness of shared goals and adaptive information
presentation in museums. First results of study 1 show a beneficial effect of goal-awareness and
adaptive information on acquisition of transfer knowledge. Additionally it could be shown, that
dyads are more similar within than between, indicating processes of convergence during the visit.
Camilla Monaco


Since, also for toddlers, development and learning are “situated” processes, early educational
centres can be considered as important natural contexts for development and education, where
social interactions play a primary role for socializing the “new members” of society. For these
reasons, an early education setting – in Italy attended by 0-3 years old toddlers – is particularly
suitable to observe social exchanges and interactions between toddlers and between adults and
This study aims at observing and analyzing, in a qualitative perspective, the development of
children’s sociability during the everyday life within an Italian early education setting. It involves
18 children of 20-40 months of age and their 4 caretakers. It wishes to observe:
Toddlers’ modalities of mutual regulation of exchanges and interactions (e.g. management How individuals participate to small-group activities (e.g. “participation structure”). The research is based on semi-participant observation and video recording. For the analysis, it adopts some of the main principles of CA and DA and it is made of two different steps: the multimodal transcription of videotaped interactions and the analysis of interactional sequences. This analysis procedure implies that it is not possible to establish in advance the relevance of some specific interactional phenomena, because it is a circular process of reading, making hypothesis and coming back to data. The results, even though partial and in-progress, confirm the complexity of children’s social interactions, concerning not only the strategies they use, but also their ability to co-construct with peers complex participation structures, which they seem to be able to deeply understand, switching between diverse communicative modalities and registers. By the end of the second year, toddlers are already able to find an implicit agreement about “how” they co-construct interactional exchanges, showing to accept and promote changes and re-adaptations of interactions. IMPROVING COMPETENCIES FOR E-PORTFOLIO
György Szerencsés

The research topic is related to some experience gained in the higher education during a year. In
the main focus there is the investigation of how to introduce the usage of e-Portfolios (eP — in
what follows) in teacher’s training. There are several points of evaluation and administration that
can be linked to making eP in the process of teacher’s training. Among others, managing and
archiving data of documents about students’ academic skills and teaching competencies are in
focus. The main aims are: (a) reviewing the results attained so far, (b) preparing standards for
evaluations for this domain, (c) elaborating topics for teacher’s training, (d) assessing and
improving competencies for eP. The experimental part of the research is planned in co-operation
with students. Methodological tools involve e-questionnaires, continuous diarizing of activities
and results, interviews and team sessions — sources of qualitative analysis. As a part of this
research domain, our aim is to concentrate on IT skills especially, which are necessary for eP.
This set of special competencies can be observed as a bridge from IT skills to the competencies,
which can serve the students in their academic and personal career. The purpose of this paper is
to show the significance of this new research domain. It gives an outline for direct and indirect
effects of introducing eP methods.
Maartje van der Niet, Wilfried Admiraal, Geert ten Dam & Femke Geijsel

To answer the research question ‘to what extend do youngsters differ in citizenship
competences?’, secondary analyses were conducted on data of the Citizenship Competences
Questionnaire. The theoretical framework of this questionnaire consists of a matrix of four social
tasks (participating in a democracy, carrying joint responsibility for the community, dealing with
conflicts, dealing with differences) crossed with four components of competences (attitudes,
skills, knowledge, reflection), leading to sixteen subunits. A full model multivariate analysis of
variance (MANOVA) was conducted for each social task, with origin, social-economic status,
sex and age as independent variables. Analysis of the main effects shows that there are
differences in citizenship competences of youngsters. On all four social tasks we found
significant differences between youngsters of different ethnic origin. On the knowledge
component pupils with a Dutch mother had a higher score than pupils with a Turkish, Moroccan
or Surinam mother. On the skills, reflection and attitudes components pupils with a Turkish,
Moroccan or Surinam mother often had a higher score than pupils with a Dutch mother. We
didn’t find differences between youngsters of different social-economic status. On three social
tasks girls have a higher score than boys. We also found significant differences in citizenship
competences of youngsters of different ages. These differences occurred on all social tasks and
all components of competences. Younger pupils (10 and 11 year olds) often had a higher score
than older pupils (12, 13 and 14 year olds). These analyses give some initial insights in
citizenship competences of different youngsters. Further research will give us more insights in
the development of citizenship competences of different youngsters and the meaning of
citizenship and the role of the school in attaining citizenship competences according to
Ruth Villalon

One of the variables which can influence students’ representations of writing-to –learn tasks is
conception about writing itself. Several studies have shown that student’s beliefs are related to
the quality of the texts written and they seem to influence written composition (Campbell, Smith
& Broker, 1998; White & Bruning, 2005). Different approaches have established two ways of
conceiving writing. On one hand, writing is a mechanic and linear process and it is perceived as a
tool for identifying and “transmitting” or “telling” knowledge. On the other hand, writing is
dynamic, creative and it is considered as a tool for “transforming” and constructing new
knowledge through a “transaction” between writer, text and audience (Bereiter & Scardamalia,
1987; White & Bruning, 2005; Levin & Wagner, 2006). This last conception considers writing as
a learning tool that could fulfil an epistemic function.
Several studies have shown a gender effect related to different writing variables. So, girls usually
are more competent (Engelhard et al., 1994; Gambell & Hunter, 2000), have a higher self-
efficacy beliefs (Pajares & Valiente, 2001), and more positive attitudes towards writing and have
different writing tasks preferences (Merisuo-Storm, 2006) than boys.
In this work we examine secondary girls and boys’ conceptions about several writing facets. We
used a questionnaire with two scales in which a reproductive and an epistemic writing conception
can be identified. The results point out that girls and boys conceive the aspects examined in a
different way and girls tend to show a more sophisticated conception than boys. However, both
they are far from reaching the epistemic conception.
Sakina Wagdarikar, Thorsten Rasch, & Wolfgang Schnotz

Animations recently have become an important tool in education. Unfortunately, the conditions
of successful learning with animations are not well known, because the efficacy of an animation
is substantially influenced by several factors like content, layout, interactivity and the learner's
In any case the learner must be able to extract significant information from a continuously
changing display. Therefore, the ability to identify the important states of a changing system
could act as an indicator for the learner's benefit while learning from animation. The major
objective of this study was to determine the influence of prior knowledge on the selection of
important states.
Experts and novices in mechanical engineering resp. sports sciences were asked to observe
animations of mechanical and biological movements and select a number of key-frames. 100
participants, differing in their level of expertise, observed two animations themes in each case:
The mechanical animation showed the operation of a four-stroke-engine, and the biological
animation showed the crawl style swimming. After selecting the key-frames of each animation
the participants were asked to explain the reasons for their selection.
The explanations were categorized by their perceptual and conceptual base. The results indicate
that the key-frame selection was largely influenced by the conceptual prior knowledge of the
participants. Affirmative to our assumptions, experts were better able to identify and explain the
causal relations within the displayed system, whereas the recognition of visual- perceptual cues
which are not domain-specific was possible for both experts and novices. Based on these results,
we conclude that successful learning from an animation requires a conceptual prior knowledge in
the particular domain.
Denise L. Winsor


A children’s personal epistemology framework using a dynamic systems approach in a classroom
context is proposed. Research in children’s epistemology is limited. Recently there has been
discussion among researchers in this area that suggests a phase of early epistemological onset. In
this model personal epistemology is comprised of the nature of knowledge and the process of
knowing. In dynamic systems theory an individual is not an isolated entity but rather part of a
larger system. Consistent with this the framework incorporates the child, their parents and peers,
and their preschool teacher. Each relationship is represented as a system and each system has
sub-systems. Within the system are constructs that investigate internal and external processes.
Interpersonal relationships are used as a way of observing language, cognitive, self, and emotive
processes. Interactions identify ways in which these processes are able to connect. This type of
approach is new to the field and will foster the ability to assess children’s personal epistemology
through their affect, language, relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Such a framework
will contribute to the field of personal epistemology generally and will also open doors for
researching children specifically. This could have a significant impact on early educational
curriculum and instruction.


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