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Veterinary antibiotics in pig feces
Relationship between the longevous
population and trace element in the
School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing
soils of Xiayi County, China
The intense livestock farming in China engenders a
Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources
significant volume of manures with no other solution for
farmers than land disposal. Continued land application of
antibiotics-containing manure could detrimental to soil and
water quality in the long term. 14 veterinary antibiotics (VAs)
Effects of environment on the longevous population
in pig feces were quantitatively determined using HPLC.
Health and longevity can be considered as the product of
interactions between environment, heredity and lifestyle [1, 2].
A case study on Scandinavian twins concludes that the effect
antibiotics Appearance Mean Lowest Highest
value value value S.D.
of heredity on life expectancy accounts for 20–30%, whereas
5.29 0.32 30.55 9.07
that of environmental change accounts for at least 70% .
11.81 0.73 56.81 18.60
Most recently, soil, drinking water and climate were reported
3.19 0.68 22.34 6.41
to be leading environmental factors influencing regional
population longevity . Based on field investigation and
laboratory analysis, trace elements in the soils of Xiayi
County, a Chinese longevous area, were investigated, and the
key elements closely linked to health and longevity were
: The residues of antibiotics in pig feces (mg·kg-1)
(TC:tetracycline, OTC:oxytetracycline, CTC:chlortetracycline,
SG:sulfaguanidine, SA:sulfanilamide, SMZ:sulfamethoxazole,
SMM:sulfamonomethoxine, SMR:sulfamerazine, SCP:sulfa-
chlorpyridazine, NOR:norfloxacin, CIP:ciprofloxacin, ENR:
Spatial distribution of Se, Cd in the soil of Xiayi
enrofloxacin, DIF:difloxacin, TYL: tylosin).
Discussion of Results
Result shows that 5.6-61.1% of four types of VAs could
The longevous population was distributed in a belt running
be detected in pig feces. The risk quotients (RQ) indicate a
across Xiayi County from northeast (NE) to southwest (SW).
certain probability for adverse effects of VAs on soil microbial
The longevity rate (number of population aged 95 or older per
activity . The largest RQ of OTC suggested that it should
million) reached 83 in the NW region. Interestedly, it
be the priority control of Vas in the study area.
dramatically increased to 187 in the NE region, where the soils
contained higher Se and Zn but lower Cd (Figure 1). The
Supported by EPPWP (200909042), NNSFC (20977010)
findings indicate that sufficient Zn and Se as well as low
exposure to heavy metal pollution contribute to human
 Spaepen et al.
(1997) Environ. Toxicol. Chem
 Perls et al.
(2002) Mech. Ageing Dev. 123
, 231–242.  Li
(2011) Sci. Total Environ
 Ljungquist et al.
(1998) J. Gerontol. Ser. A , Biol. Sci.
Med. Sci. 53
, M441-M446.  Lv et al.
(2011) Arch. Gerontol
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Nutritional and Animal Welfare Implications to Lameness Jan K. Shearer1 Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Abstract metalloproteinase enzymes and peripartumhormones, such as estrogen and relaxin. Theimplications of this are that in addition to feedingfermentive disorders occurring secondary to theand nutrition, dairy farmers must pay particularconsu