Spinosad as an Organophosphate Alternative for Areawide Fruit Fly Control in Hawaii and Production of Organic Fruits & Vegetables R. I. Vargas1, N. W. Miller1, R. J. Prokopy2, 4, and R. F. L. Mau 3 1United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 4459, Stainback Highway, Hilo, HI 96720, (808) 959-4329, Fax: (808) 959-5470, [email protected], http://pbarc.ars.usda.gov 2University of Massachusetts, Department of Entomology, Fernhald Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 3University of Manoa, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Services College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, 3050 Maile Way, Room 310, Honolulu, HI 96822 (808) 956-7063, Fax: (808) 956-5888, [email protected] 4 Deceased, 14 May 2004 Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) Abstract:
Protein bait sprays and the highly attractive male kairomone lures methyl eugenol and cue-lure have been used in conjunction with organophosphate insecticides in area-wide fruit fly campaigns worldwide. An effective spinosad protein bait spray (GF-120) without an organophosphate insecticide has recently been developed for area-wide control of oriental fruit fly and melon fly in Hawaii. In addition a male annihilation spinosad treatment has been developed for area-wide suppression of oriental fruit fly and melon fly. These treatments offer environmentally friendly alternatives to present organophosphate formulations for eradication or suppression of fruit flies not only in Hawaii, but throughout the world. Many cooperators in the Hawaii Area-Wide Pest Management Program have employed these techniques to produce organically certified fruits and vegetables.
Historically, protein bait sprays and the highly attractive male kairomone lures methyl eugenol (4-allyl-1, 2-dimethoxybenzene-carboxylate) and cuelure [4-(p- acetoxyphenyl)- 2- butanone] have been used in conjunction with organophosphate insecticides in area-wide fruit fly campaigns (Vargas et al. 2001, 2002, 2003). Overuse of organophosphate insecticides has been implicated in secondary pest outbreaks, negative effects on beneficial insects, environmental contamination, and adverse effects on human health (Carson 1962, Hoy & Dahlsten 1984, Dow Elanco 1994). Concerns with the use of these toxicants in insect eradication programs have been repeatedly voiced by community organizations in the U.S.A. Recently spinosad, an insecticide derived from metabolites from the soil bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, has shown promise as an alternative to traditional toxicants. Spinosad demonstrates lower mammalian and environmental toxicity with reduced risk to humans and wildlife than traditional insecticides (Dow Elanco 1994). Unlike traditional toxicants spinosad has limited contact toxicity and low volatility and thus must be ingested by insects to be effective. For this reason we began researching methods for the use of spinosad against Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)), and Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)) in the Hawaiian Islands. Table 1. Mean % melon fly arriving on cucumber Materials and Methods: Field Plot Trials of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait for Melon Fly Stnd Dev ±
Three types of fields with sorghum borders were simultaneously evaluated: a plot with sprayed borders, a plot with unsprayed borders, and a plot
without borders. Plots were one hectare with cut cucumbers placed inside (fig. 1).
Sprayed plots were treated with GF-120 NF fruit fly bait diluted to contain 80 ppm spinosad (fig. 2). 50 ml of this mixture was applied in a 50 cm
P - Starved
swath around the entire perimeter of the plot using a backpack sprayer with a coarse nozzle setting.
Protein fed (egg-bearing) and protein starved female melon flies were marked and released at each field site. Twenty-five females of each
physiological state were released from each side of the field plot during the morning of each trial.
Values in each column followed by letters are not significantly
Cucumbers were checked for arriving female flies every half hour for 8 hours each day. Arriving females were removed and recorded.
Fig. 1. Experimental field plot with sorghum
different at the 0.05 level (LSD, Proc GLM, SAS). border used to test GF-120 fruit fly bait against melon fly. Male Annihilation Studies with Oriental Fruit Fly and Melon Fly
Naled and malathion are the standard insecticides used in male annihilation treatments. Table 2. Cuelure male annihilation captures
Plastic 1 liter bucket traps (fig. 3) containing cotton wicks with either cuelure (10 ml) or methyl eugenol (10 ml) with various toxicants were
Toxicants tested included spinosad, naled, malathion, DDVP, and permethrin. Solutions were mixed that contained 5% (ai) of each liquid
toxicant and placed on a cotton dental wick. Ten ml of each solution was put on each wick. Two gm cubes of DDVP were placed in baskets with
10ml of lure (cuelure or methyl eugenol).
Flies were removed from traps and counted each week. Malathion Spinosad Results: Field Plot Trials of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait for Melon Fly Permethrin
Significantly more egg-bearing female melon flies where able to reach cucumbers in the open and unsprayed plots (table 1).
Values (weeks 1-5 or 16-20) in each column followed by
No starved flies arrived to cucumber in the plots sprayed with GF-120 (table 1).
letters are not significantly different at the 0.05 level (LSD, Proc GLM, SAS).
Few starved flies were attracted to cucumber (table 1).
Fig. 2. GF-120 NF fruit fly bait. Male Annihilation Studies with Oriental Fruit Fly and Melon Fly
In cuelure tests spinosad kill compared with malathion during weeks 1-5 (table 2).
In cuelure tests spinosad kill compared with naled and malathion during weeks 6-10 (table 2). Table 3. Methyl eugenol male annihilation captures Toxicant
In methyl eugenol tests spinosad wicks showed kill similar to naled and malathion for up to 10 weeks (table 3). Spinosad Conclusions: Malathion
An effective protein bait spray without an organophosphate insecticide has been developed for area-wide control of not only Mediterranean fruit
fly but also for oriental fruit fly and melon fly. An organic formulation (GF-120 NF) is now available.
In addition a male annihilation spinosad treatment without an organophosphate insecticide has been developed for area-wide suppression of
A moderately successful male annihilation spinosad treatment without an organophosphate insecticide has been developed for melon fly. Permethrin
Values (weeks 1-5 or 16-20) in each column followed by letters
GF-120 NF and passive MAT treatments have allowed many growers in the Hawaii Fruit Fly AWPM Program to market organic fruits and
are not significantly different at the 0.05 level (LSD, Proc GLM,
References: Fig. 3. Plastic 1 liter bucket trap used for male annihilation trials.
Carson, R., 1962. Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. DowElanco, 1994. Spinosad technical guide. DowElanco, Indianapolis, IN. Hoy, J. B. & D. L. Dahlsten, 1984. Effects of malathion and Staley’s bait on the behavior and survival of parasitic hymenoptera. Environmental Entomology 13: 1483-1486. Peck, S.L. & G. T. McQuate, 2000. Field tests of environmentally friendly malathion replacements to suppress wild Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations. Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 280-289. Prokopy, R., et al., 2003. Effectiveness of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait Spray Applied to Border Area Plants for Control of Melon Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 96 (5): 1485-1493. Vargas, R. I., J. D. Stark, M. H Kido, H. M. Ketter & L. C. Whitehand, 2000. Methyl eugenol and cuelure traps for suppression of male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii: effects of lure mixtures and weathering. Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 81-87. Vargas, R. I., S. L. Peck, G. T. McQuate, C. G. Jackson, J. D. Stark & J.W. Armstrong, 2001. Potential for area-wide integrated management of Mediterranean fruit fly with a braconid parasitoid and a novel bait spray. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 817-825. Vargas, R. I., et al., 2002. Attraction and feeding responses of Mediterranean fruit fly and a natural enemy to protein baits laced with two novel toxins, phloxine B and spinosad. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 102: 273-282. Vargas, R. I., et al., 2003. Field Trials of Spinosad as a Replacement for Naled, DDVP, and Malathion in Methyl Eugenol and Cue-Lure \Bucket Traps to Attract and Kill Male Oriental Fruit Flies and Melon Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology 96 (6):
We are grateful to Jamie Pinero, James Barry, Leslie Oride, Hank Soboleski, Charles Brinkman, and Linda Tran for their assistance with these experiments. We are also acknowledge the assistance of Gary Thompson of Dow AgroSciences and the help of Harold Stene and Marc Meisner of the UH Kona Experiment Station, Kainaliu, HI. The California Citrus Research Board provided partial financial support for this work (project no. 5510-138).
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