Rwanda : un situation report covering the month of december 1995

Editorial Board for the month of December 1995 The United Nations Situation Report is published by the Office of the Resident Coordinator of the United Nations System's Operational Activities for Development in TABLE OF CONTENTS
A) Political Devlopment
B) Security Situation
C) Human Rights Situation
D) Regional Developments
A) Targeted Food Assistance
B) Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
A) Round table Process
B) Economic and Financial Support
C) Capacity building
D) Justice
E) Social Sectors
F) Productive Sectors
G) Resettlement and Reintegration of Returnees
This United Nations Situation Report has been compiled from information providedby the Gorernment of Rwanda, UN agencies UNAMIR, IOM, ICRC, NGOs anddonors. It is produced once a month and seeks to give an up-to-date picture of theprogress or constraints in key areas of humanitarian intervention andrehabilitation in Rwanda. The Report also highlights political and socio-economictrends in the country to the extent that they may have implications for on-goingrelief and rehabilitation activities. The Office of the Resident Coordinatorwelcomes contributions from its humanitarian and developnlent partners inRwanda. Glossarry of Acronyms
Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances Collectif des ligues et associations de défense des droits del'homme Department for Development Support and ManagementServices International Council of Voluntary Agencies Ligue rwandaise pour la promotion et la défense des droits del'homme Ministry of Higher Education Scientific Research and Culture Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education Ministry of Rehabilitation and Social Integration Save the Children Federation-United States Special Representative of the Secretary-General United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda Organisation Programme for Education for Emergencies andReconstruction Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Office for Project Services MAJOR EVENTS
UN Security Council extends and adjusts UNAMIR's mandate.
The Govemment of Rwanda expels 43 intemational NGOs.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda issues first indictments.
Preparations are underway for 1996 Round Table.
Goverament of Zaire arrests eight intimidators in refugee camps as agreed in Cairo 1. GENERAL SITUATION
A. Political Developments
On 12 December the UN Security Council (UNSC) voted to extend and adjust UNAMIR's mandate for a period of three months. According to UNSC Resolution1029 (1995), the focus of UNAMIR's activities will be to promote and assist with thevoluntary repatriation of refugees. By providing good offices and logistical support,UNAMIR will assist the Government of Rwanda (GOR), UNHCR and otherinternational agencies in encouraging the return of refugees. UNAMIR will alsocontribute to the protection of the International Tribunal during this period1.
UNAMIR's force level will be reduced from 1,800 to 1,200 troops and the number ofmilitary observers and other military support staff cut from 400 to 200. The CIVPOLelement of UNAMIR will be withdrawn. At a press conference on 13 December theSpecial Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Ambassador ShaharyarKhan, stated that the three-month mandate would be UNAMIR's last and that afterconcluding its mandate on 8 March, UNAMIR would close down its operationswithin six weeks. The SRSG also noted that Rwandese President Pasteur Bizimunguhad paid tribute to UNAMIR II's role.
1 According to UNSC Resolution 1029 (1995) UNAMIR will: (a) exercise its good offices to assist inachieving the voluntary and safe repatriation of Rwandese refugee within the frame of reference of therecommendations of the Bujumbura Conference and the Cairo Summit of the Heads of State of the GreatLakes Region, and in promoting genuine nationalreconciliation; (b) assist the Governmennt of Rwanda infaciliating the voluntary and safe return of refugees and to the end to support the Government of Rwanda inits ongoing efforts to promote a climate of confidence and trust through the performance of monitoringtasks; assist the United Nations High Commissionner for refugees and other international agencies in theprovision of logistical support for the repatriation of refugees: (d) contribuate with the agreement of theGovernment of Rwanda to the protection of the International Tribunal for Rwanda as an interim measureuntil alternative arrangements agreed with the Government of Rwanda can be put in place.
The resolution extending UNAMIR's mandate also contains a section on UNAMIR'sequipment, a subject which took on significant proportions during negotiationsbetween the GOR and the UN Security Council concerning the mandate. TheGovernment of Rwanda has requested that UNAMIR's equipment be transferred tothe GOR. Resolution 1029 {1995) requests the Secretary-General to "examine. in thecontext of existing United Nations regulations, the feasibility of transferringUNAM1R non-lethal equipment, as elements of UNAMIR withdraw, for use inRwanda." Discussions regarding this issue are currently underway.
On 6 December the GOR announced that 38 NGOs working in Rwanda would be expelled and the activities of 18 others suspended. Five of the 18 suspendedNGOs were subsequently asked by the GOR to leave the country, raising the totalnumber of NGOs expelled to 43. The GOR gave a seven-day deadline for thedeparture of the NGOs, temporarily freezing bank accounts and seizing NGO assets.
The GOR contended that the expelled NGOs (1) were not properly carrying out theirfunctions; (2) lacked competence and qualified Human resources; (3) spent a highproportion of resources on maintaining office and expatriate staff and; (4) wereengaged in activities in which they should not be involved.
The GOR's announcement raised a great deal of concern among members of the international community. Participants at the Rwanda Local Operational SupportGroup meeting, held on 18 December in Kigali, discussed at length the GOR decision.
Representatives of donor countries, UN agencies and NGO s in attendance at themeeting expressed understanding of the GOR's desire to streamline the presence ofNGOs in Rwanda, agreeing that some NGOs had not registered or fully informed theGOR of their activities. However, participants regretted the abrupt and unilateralmanner in which the decision was taken and felt that NGOs had a right to be informedof the specific reasons for their expulsion. It was viewed that the GOR's action sent anegative signal to the international community, undermining the spirit of trustbetween the GOR, donors and NGOs, and giving an unpredictable character toassistance activities in Rwanda. Participants were concerned that the expulsion ordermight compromise the reputations of some NGOs and lead to security problems forstaff or former staff of some NGOs. On 14 December the European Parliament voted aresolution expressing concern over the GOR's action. Some donor countries,including Austria and Belgium, officially protested the GOR position regarding theissue.
Efforts are underway to improve GOR/NGO relations and a joint GOR/UN/NGO study, financed by UNDP, will begin in January 1996 to examine criteria for evaluatingNGOs. NGO representatives have indicated their appreciation for UNDP'sinvolvement and stated that there is good will among the GOR and NGO communityto resolve differences. A letter signed by 36 NGOs registered with the GOR wassubmitted to the Ministry of Rehabilitation and Social Integration (MINIREISO).
Signatories favored a constructive and nonconfrontational approach to the NGOissue. NGO representatives have expressed support for the aforementionedGOR/UN/NGO plan to evaluate the activities of NGOs.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda issued its first indictments on 12 December in Arusha, Tanzania. Eight people have been indicted and charged withgenocide and three counts of crimes against humanity. The Tribunal has thus farrefused to disclose the identities of the eight accused but has sent the indictments toauthorities in the countries where the accused are believed to be living. In astatement made on 12 December 1995, Judge Richard Goldstone, Special Prosecutorfor the International Tribunal, said these indictments were an important stop inbringing to justice those most responsible for the mass killing that took place inRwanda in 1994.
Preparations ~•r the 1996 Round Table continue. The Government of Rwanda has established three inter-ministerial task forces to prepare for the 1996 RoundTable, which will focus on the following themes: ( I ) security and justice; (2)transition from humanitarian aid to development; and (3) strengthening nationalcapacity. At the conference, the GOR will also present for policy dialogue amacro-economic framework covering the 1996-9S period.
On 30 December the Zairian Government announced it had arrested eight intimidators who were trying to prevent refugees from leaving the camps. Thesearrests are viewed as an indication that Zaire is attempting to fulfill the obligations itaccepted at the Cairo Summit in November. In a related development, at a newsconference on 17 December in Dar es Salaam, newly-elected President Mkapa ofTanzania reiterated his Government's commitment to the Cairo Declaration. Heindicated that Tanzania would stop intimidators in the refugee camps and preventrefugees from organising militarily. President Mkapa also expressed support for thework of the International Tribunal.
The Ambassador of Sweden to Kenya, Mr. Lars-Goran Engfeldt, visited Rwanda from 18 to 20 December. During his visit, Ambassador Engfeldt reaffirmedSweden's commitment to assist Rwanda in the process of reconstruction andreconciliation and indicated that Sweden would, in collaboration with theGovernment of Norway and Denmark, aid in the provision of housing for Kigali Ruraland Gitarama Prefectures. Sweden has already made a contribution, amounting toUS$ 500,000, channeled through the UNDP Trust Fund, in support of the"Commission de Triage".
A letter dated 15 December from the Ministry of Transport and Communications announced the GOR's decision to impose fees and charges for theuse of communication facilities and equipment used in Rwanda. This measure would have significant consequences for UN Agencies and NGOs in the country.
Discussions to resolve this issue are underway.
B. Security Situation
(1) Infiltration / Banditry / Assassinations
It appears the Rwandese Patriotic Army (RPA) raid on an ex-FAR (ex-Forces arméesrwandaises) base on Iwawa Island in early November may have had a significantimpact on exFAR capacity to carry out destabilisation activities. The number ofsecurity incidents reported throughout Rwanda, and in Kibuye Prefecture inparticular, is noticeably down.
According to a UNAMIR report, on 18 December, an RPA battalion led byLieutenant-Colonel Augustin Munyakazi, himself a former ex-FAR officer, conducteda cordon-and-search operation in a commune in Ruhengeri Prefecture. The objectiveof the operation was to capture or kill an ex-FAR Captain who had been taxing thelocal population to support ex-FAR and Interahamwe operations in the area. Theex-FAR Captain reportedly opened fire on the RPA during the operation and waskilled.
On 29 December, gunmen shot and seriously wounded the bodyguard of exiledRwandese millionaire Felicien Kabuga in Nairobi. Before fleeing Rwanda, Mr. Kabugacontrolled most of the country’s tea and coffee plantations and factories. He wasalso the President of the Board of Directors of Radio-Television Libre des MilleCollines, which played a key role in inciting violence against Tutsis and moderateHutus. He was politically active, and was an intimate friend of PresidentHabyarhnana. According to the press, the bodyguard was shot and killed in aparking lot after refusing to lead the gunmen to Kabuga.
(2) Mines / Sabotage
Two mine incidents were reported on 7 December 1995. In Rubungo Commune, KigaliVille Prefecture, an anti-personnel mine was discovered and destroyed by the RPA.
In Nyamirambo, also in Kigali Ville Prefecture, a child stepped on an anti-personnelmine, losing a leg. Three other children were wounded by shrapnel. According toUNAMIR, on 12 December, a RPA soldier also lost a leg after stepping on ananti-personnel mine in Nyamasheke, Cyangugu Prefecture. On 23 December ananti-personnel mine was detonated in the public market at Vunga, in GisenyiPrefecture. Six people were injured, with one woman losing a leg. Later in the daythree more anti-personnel mines were discovered in the same market. The mines,Italian TP-20s, were removed by RPA engineers.
On the night of 19 December two power pylons were damaged by explosives inGisenyi, and an attempt was made on a third. Early on 22 December, the ex-FAR blewup two bridges on the main coastal road in Cyangugu Prefecture within a minute ofeach other. Twenty minutes later another explosive went off on a power pylon in theBubyiro area. Because of the proximity of the three targets in both time and space, itis a virtual certainty that the attack was coordinated. The results of the attacks weremixed. Both bridges were badly damaged, but by 23 December the two bridges hadbeen repaired with logs and the road re-opened. The attacks on the power pylons inGisenyi did not succeed in cutting the power lines.
On 29 December, in Kibuye Prefecture there was an explosion in the Home Saint JeanChurch in which a small boy had his left hand amputated and sustained facialinjuries. An investigation revealed that the boy was playing with some sort of a handgrenade or part of a land mine when the blast occurred. On the same day inCyangugu Prefecture a medical center was attacked by gunmen suspected to beex-FAR. Three grenades were used but no casualties were reported.
C. Human Rights Situation
In addition to cases of arrests conducted outside legal procedures (notably thefailure to present a mandate at the time of arrest), reports of Human Rights violationsduring December included over forty alleged violations of the right to life, includingone reported summary execution of an RPA soldier, and nine new possibledisappearances. Numerous cases of ill-treatment in detention were reported , withtwo detainees dying as a result of the ill-treatment. The Human Rights situationremained of greatest concern in Cyangugu and Gisenyi Prefectures, both borderingZaire.
December saw the detention and, ultimately, the release of representatives from twoRwandese human rights groups. Mr. Jean-Baptiste Barambirwa, President of thecollectif des ligues et associations de défense des droits de l'homme (CLADHO) wasarrested on 10 December after giving a Human Rights Day speech in Kigali on thecurrent human rights situation in Rwanda. Mr. Théobald Rwaka, a representative ofthe Ligue rwandaise pour la promotion et la défense des droits de l'homme(LIPRODHOR), had been arrested on 18 November, and detained apparently inconnection with a speech he had given on human rights at an arrest and detentionseminar in Cyangugu prefecture. Both men were provisionally released in December,but remained under investigation in connection with Article 166 of the Penal Code,which provides penalties of up to ten years imprisonment for "exciting the populationagainst the established powers".
HRFOR investigated the killing of five men, including a 14-year old boy, in RuhengeriPrefecture. The five men were among eight individuals who were shot by uniformed men in a bar in Cyabingo Commune the evening of 18 December. The identity of theperpetrators and the exact motive for the killings remain unknown, but HRFOR iscontinuing its investigation. In Gikongoro Prefecture, HRFOR investigated the killingof two people, and the reported summary execution of their killer, an RPA soldier.
According to the RPA, the soldier was shot while attempting to escape after beingarrested. HRFOR informed the Ministry of Defense and asked that an officialinvestigation be opened.
Significant steps were taken by Rwandese authorities to curb impunity for humanrights violations committed by soldiers. On 19 December, Vice-PresidentMajor-General Paul Kagame announced that soldiers convicted by military courts ofkilling civilians would be subject to the death penalty. In Gisenyi Prefecture, fourRPA soldiers were tried by the "Conseil de guerre" for their involvement in the 10December shooting of four people, three of whom died. The trial, at which thesoldiers were represented by defense counsel, began on 21 December. On 28December one of the soldiers, a sergeant, was sentenced to death. Another soldierwas sentenced to eight months in prison, and the remaining two were sentenced tofour months in prison.
HRFOR was informed that the military prosecutor has begun an investigation into the25 November killings of civilians in Nyungwe Forest. A minimum of thirteen peoplewere killed, including six women and two children, during an operation by the RPAagainst a temporary settlement in the forest.
On 13 December, the National Security Council, including Vice-PresidentMajorGeneral Paul Kagame and several other Ministers and national officials, held apublic meeting in Butare, at which the issue of resolving security problems in ButarePrefecture was discussed. Local officials were encouraged to address severalproblems, notably ill-treatment in "communal cachots", and to communicate to thenational level the problems that occurred in maintaining security. The Vice-Presidentreminded the assembled authorities that, in order to build a state of law, it isnecessary to rely on justice. A similar meeting of the National Security Council washeld in Gitarama on 20 December.
HRFOR’s staffing, fell to 107 by 31 December, and was projected to fall further to 43 by 31January, mostly due to United Nations Volunteers not renewing their contracts. Recruitmentof UNVs to replace those who left was unable to take place due to financial constraints.
D. Regional Developments / Repatriation
In December the number of returnees increased significantly. According to UNHCR, morethan 13,500 refugees returned to Rwanda, compared with approximately 6,700 in NovemberThis increase was due to an influx of returnees from Burundi between 19 and 23 December, when a total of 5,499 returnees crossed the border into Rwanda in UNHCR- andIOM-organised convoys. Slightly over 5,000 refugees returned from Zaire during December,around the same number as in November. Of this group, over 1,100 returned to RuhengeriPrefecture, and over 600 to Gisenyi prefecture. The flow of returnees from Tanzania nearlyceased; only some 200 returnees crossed the border from Tanzania.
During the reporting period, UNHCR issued a US$ 288 million appeal to cover the cost of its1996 operations for Rwandese and Burundese refugees and returnees in the Great Lakesregion. The new appeal places special emphasis on voluntary repatriation to Rwanda in 1996,and plans for a shift in UNHCR's programs from care and maintenance of refugees in countriesof asylum to return and reintegration in the country of origin. UNDP, WFP, UNICEF, otherUN Agencies, IOM and NGOs are collaborating in these efforts. Plans for assistance toreturnees in Rwanda include the provision of reception facilities and transport in bothcountries. Upon arrival, the returnees will receive a repatriation package including items suchas blankets, kitchen sets, plastic sheeting, seeds and tools, along with a two-month supply ofbasic foodstuffs from WFP. UNHCR also plans to provide substantial assistance in villageswhere returnees are expected to reintegrate. The UNHCR appeal also calls for some urgentmeasures to address the serious economic and environmental problems resulting from largenumbers of refugees in the three asylum countries.
(1) Zaire
Insecurity in the Masisi region northwest of Goma has prompted over 5,000 Rwandese "oldcaseload" refugees (mainly from 1959 and 1972) to request repatriation. Ongoing conflict anddifficult access have thus far postponed convoys which were scheduled to begin on 26December and continue into the new year. During the reporting period, however,approximately 1,700 "old caseload" refugees returned spontaneously through the Gisenyiborder post.
At the Rwanda/Zaire/UNHCR Tripartite Commission meeting held in Geneva on 20December, the three parties expressed strong concern at the recent decline in refugees willingto repatriate to Rwanda. The High Commissioner for Refugees, Mrs. Sadako Ogata, told themeeting that political factors, an increase in insecurity in the region, and a failure by the partiesto translate earlier commitments into concrete action were in part responsible for the slowprogress in getting people back home. In the communiqué issued at the end of the meeting,Rwanda reaffirmed its commitment to establish the necessary conditions for a safe return ofrefugees and to strengthen its capacity to welcome them home. For its part, Zaire reaffirmedits commitment to rid the refugee camps of those using intimidation to block the return ofrefugees. The meeting, originally scheduled for October, was the second between Rwanda,Zaire and UNHCR. Leading the Rwandese delegation was the Minister of Rehabilitation andSocial Integration, H. E. Patrick Mazimhaka. Zairets delegation was led by Vice-PrimeMinister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, H. E. Gerard Kamanda wa Kamanda. The firstTripartite Commission meeting between Rwanda, Zaire and UNHCR was held in Geneva on25 September 1995.
(2) Tanzania
The Tripartite Commission including Rwanda, Tanzania, UNHCR and the OAU, held its third meeting in Kigali on 7-8 December. The Rwandese delegation was led by Dr. Ephrem Kabaija, Chairman of the Joint Commission for the Repatriation and Reintegration of Rwandese Refugees. The Tanzanian delegation was led by Mr. Matiku Nyitambe, Regional Development Director of the Kagera Region. UNHCR and the OAU were respectively represented by Mr.
W. R. Urasa and Mr. J. Felli. The Tripartite Commission meeting was preceded by two other subcommittee meetings, namely the Sub-Committee on Security and Safety and the Subcommittee on the Facilitation of Repatriation. The Sub-Committee on Security and Safety deals with issues of security at the borders due to the refugee presence in the neighboring country, the separation of intimidators and related issues. The Sub-Committee on the Facilitation of Repatriation looks after matters pertaining to refugee/returnee visits and the dissemination of information to the camps.
Two "go and see" visits from Ngara and Karagwe camps took refugees to their home cornmunes in Byumba and Kibungo Prefectures from 18 to 23 December. During the first, one refugee was detained by local authorities after he was allegedly recognised as a suspect in the genocide. The second visit, which took 26 persons on a four-day visit to five cornmunes in Kibungo Prefecture encountered no difficulties. In all, 474 refugees have participated in over 30 "go and see" visits from three countries of asylum since the program was initiated in mid-1995: 342 from Burundi, 122 from Tanzania and 10 from Zaire.
Registration exercises carried out on 9 December in Karagwe were successful and produced a global figure approximately 38,000 lower for the five camps, representing a 22% reduction of the caseload. Precise numbers will become available as the database is updated.
(3) Burundi
Reported clashes between armed groups and soldiers in Burundi provoked the surge in returns to Rwanda, with some 7,000 Rwandese refugees repatriating during December. The majority of the refugees from Burundi returned to their communes of origin in Kibungo and Butare Prefectures. Another 2,000 Rwandese refugees, who were trying to cross into Tanzania from Burundi on 21 December, were forced back by Tanzanian authorities.
Amnesty International reported in December that more than 1,000 persons are being killed each month by Government forces and armed groups in Burundi, with over 100,000 dead since October 1993. -Insecurity has compelled NGOs and UN agencies to curtail their activities throughout the country, cutting, off humanitarian assistance to Rwandese refugees and Burundese internally displaced persons (IDPs) alike. The sudden jump in repatriation from Mugano camp came at a time when most NGO expatriate personnel had been withdrawn to Bujumbura after many direct attacks and repeatedthreats to their safety. The aid community has called on the Government of Burundi to defend the apolitical and humanitarian character of its mission. WFP and UNHCR are exploring ways to guarantee food delivery for the six refugee camps in the north should WFP be forced to limit staff` presence in certain provinces. Stocks in Ngozi and in camp storage facilities are sufficient to feed the refugee population for severalweeks but trucking of supplies to and from warehouses, as well as to the 86,000 IDPs currently receiving food aid in the same provinces, has become uncertain.
A. Targeted Food Assistance
During the period from I to 25 December, WFP received 6,S01 MTs of food in countryand distributed a total of 4,052 MTs of food. Food distributions were made asfollows: 220 MTs to Residents/Returnees, 592 MTs in targeted distributions, 201MTs to way stations, 45 MTs to camps, 2,609 MTs in food-for-work (FFW) activities,224 MTs for health related activities and 161 MTs in miscellaneous activities.
During December, ICRC distributed 1,300 MTs in food-aid as half-rations to 135,000beneficiaries in Butare and Gikongoro Prefectures. In addition, both food andnon-food assistance continued to the prison population.
In accordance with an agreement between the Rwandese Red Cross, the Federationof Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and ICRC, 300 MTs of cereals, beans andoil were handed over in December to the Rwandese Red Cross for distribution to23,000 secondary school pupils.
B. Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances
By the end of December, the ICRC and other agencies had registered over 84,000unaccompanied children in the Great Lakes region, whereas the data of more that35,000 parents searching for their children had been entered into the ICRC's centraldatabase. Although by the end of December the ICRC had carried out over 2,500family reunions, mainly through cross-border transfers from Zaire and Tanzania, tensof thousands of children remain without news of their families. Other unaccompaniedchildren live with foster families and are yet to be registered.
The Red Cross Message (RCM) network provides one of the only means ofcommunication between families separated by the tragedy of 1994. Over 130,000RCMs are distributed every month, bringing to 1.3 million the total number of RCMsexchanged since the beginning of the operation in August 1994. All messages, whichcan contain only family news, are checked by ICRC staff before delivery.
Due to the departure of 43 NGOs of which four - Bornefonden, Partage, Terre desHommes and CUA\IM - were UNICEF's implementing partners, UNICEF has taken emergency steps to avoid the breakdown of services in several unaccompaniedchildren's centers run by these NGOs. In two centers replacement agencies havebeen found. The three other centers remain without NGO financial and technicalassistance although national staff is still present.
UNICEF transferred 34 child detainees to Gitagata rehabilitation center on 20December, bringing the number of male adolescents in the center to 184.
Twenty-seven minors came from Rilima Prison in Kigali Rural Prefecture and eightfrom "communal cachots", or communal detention centers, in Gitarama. The operationwould not have been possible without the assistance of HRFOR teams in those tworegions. The close contact the Gitarama team had with "Inspecteurs de policejudiciaire" (IPJs) accelerated the transfer of the minors from the "cachots". All of thechildren are under 15; the majority have been accused of participating in thegenocide.
With the departure of Terre des Hommes, responsible for education andpsycho-social activities in Gitagata, UNICEF has increased its financial and technicalassistance to the center. The agency is also funding the rehabilitation of a wing forminors in a detention center in Kabuga, Kigali Ville Prefecture. The center, which isstill under construction, will have a capacity for 4,000 adults and 600 minors.
UNICEF delivered school uniforms, mattresses, bed sheets, school supplies andother items to the Kadogo School for demobilised soldiers in Butare. The items are tobenefit those boys attending secondary schools in the surrounding communities. In1996 UNICEF will support the NGO Feed the Children in efforts to trace families ofdemobilised child soldiers and to follow-up progress once they have been reunited.
UNICEF is collaborating with a number of NGOs for its 1996 activities on behalf ofvulnerable women and children. Separate agreements are to be signed withASEO-Wihogora and Save the Children Fund-UK (SCF-UK) to continue tracing andreunification efforts. In order to support a study on street children and to providetechnical expertise in the Miyove Center for women prisoners and their children,UNICEF will sign two separate agreements with SCF-USA. UNICEF will support Foodfor the Hungry and ADAP in providing assistance to vulnerable households withinthe country and for the reintegration and resettlement of returnee foster families.
A national program for photo tracing is being planned by MINIREISO, UNICEF, andFeed the Children in close collaboration with the two leading agencies in masstracing, ICRC and SCF-UK. Photos of unaccompanied children will be displayed atstrategic points throughout the country (bus stations, public buildings, ICRC andSCF-UK offices, etc.) to facilitate tracing.
For the benefit of the 65 children (ranging from 16 to 18 years old) detained in Gitarama Prison, and 77 (12 to 18 years old) detained in Nsinda Prison (KibungoPrefecture), UNESCO-PEER organised pedagogical training sessions in the prisons. Thetrainees were four graduate language teachers in Gitarama Prison and three qualified primaryschool teachers in Nsinda Prison all of whom volunteered to teach imprisoned children. Theywere provided with Teacher Emergency Packages after having learned the relevantmethodology. The same training program was given at the Gitagata Re-education andProduction Center (Kigali) where seven educators, including the Director, two teachers andone psychologist took advantage of the pedagogical training and materials in order to help the149 children (from 7 to 16 years old) detained there.
III. Rehabilitation, Reconstruction And Development
A. Round Table Process
(1) Contributions to the 1995 Round Table Conference
Funds pledged to date by donors have reached US$ 1,264 million, against US$ 587 millionregistered initially at the Geneva Round Table conference of January 1995. The increase camemainly from: (1) a continuation of projects previously in the pipe-line which the GOR had notconsidered to be on its new priority list; and (2) additional pledges made by donors at the July1995 Round Table mid-term Review, mainly by the European Union and the Netherlands. Aswell, France officially pledged assistance to Rwanda at the Review. Additional pledges fromBelgium, the European Union. Japan and the Netherlands, totaling US$ 90 million, were madeat the Thematic Consultation on Repatriation, Reinstallation and Social Reintegration held inKigali in November 1995.
"Commitments" to date by donors are estimated at US$ 878.5 million, equivalent to 150% ofthe pledges made in Geneva. Making good their intentions confirmed at the RT Mid-Mid-termReview, donors accelerated commitments of funds further, especially in sub-programs 2 and 3.
The largest commitments to date have come from the World Bank (US$ 224 million),European Union (US$ 125 million), USA (US$ 122 million) and Germany (US$ 103 million).
Disbursements to date by donors are estimated at US$ 403.9 million, equivalent to 69% of thetotal pledged in Geneva, a remarkable improvement over May (9%), July (15%) andSeptember (43%) disbursements. At the Government's request, a few donors have expeditedtheir bilateral disbursement procedures and/or contributed through the Secretary-General TrustFund or the UNDP Trust Fund. To date, several bilateral donors have disbursed more than theamounts they had pledged in Geneva: United Kingdom (483%), USA (169%), Netherlands(143%) and Canada (142%).
In an effort to monitor incoming aid flows to Rwanda, the GOR has differentiated "direct aid"from assistance channeled through UN Agencies and NGOs ("indirect aid"). The latter isestimated to amount to almost US$ 302 million (31% of total pledges), over and above theUS$ 500 million reported by UN-DHA under the Consolidated Appeal. Provisional data tend to indicate that disbursements by UN Agencies and NGOs are somewhat faster than in thecase of assistance channeled directly to the GOR, especially for resettlement of refugees.
Combined disbursements of "indirect aid" and "humanitarian assistance" in 1995 are alsoestimated to be much higher than those of direct aid". In fact, aid disbursed throughGovernment agencies and UNDP would only total US$ 220 million in 1995, prompting someGovernment officials to question the outcome of external support.
The Secretary-General Trust Fund was established in the immediate aftermath of theRwandese crisis, with particular support from the Netherlands, in order to facilitate the rapiddisbursement of funds. Subsequently, in early 1995, the UNDP Trust Fund was constitutedto channel resources from donors for rehabilitation projects. Apart from resources receivedtrough the Trust Fund modality, UNDP is also managing resources provided by differentdonors under cost-sharing arrangements. The United Kingdom has become a major"cost-sharing" donor through its contribution to the Economic Management program. France,Ireland, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, and the World Bank have also contributed to the fund. Asof 31 December 1995, contributions pledged via the Trust Funds and cost-sharingarrangements managed by UNDP total US$ 43.5 million.
Programming of Trust Funds and cost-sharing resources is undertaken by UNDP in closeconsultation with the GOR, especially the Ministry of Planning, and in accordance withpriorities attached by donors if any. UNDP has so far, programmed 17 projects totaling US$18.1 million, equivalent to 113% of pledges made in Geneva (US$ 16 million). These projectshave mainly concentrated on "Financial Support" (US$ 6.1 million) and "Rehabilitation" (US$9.5 Million). In addition, four projects totaling US$ 9 million are awaiting Governmentapproval. In order to expedite programming and disbursements of donors' contributions to theUNDP Trust Fund, UNDP has often advanced its own money to cover preparation andstart-up costs. Disbursements by the UNDP (including contributions through both theSecretary General and UNDP Trust Funds and cost-sharing arrangements) are estimated atUS$ 10.5 million, equivalent to 66% of Geneva pledges.
(2) The 1996 Round Table
The Round Table Conference on Rwanda' held in Geneva in January 1995, pledged to convenea follow-up Round Table, in order to review progress on the reconstruction program forRwanda and assess the need for further support from the international community.
Tentatively scheduled for early May, the 1996 Rwanda Round Table may be held in anotherEuropean capital rather than in Geneva as initially planned. A thematic consultation on privatesector development, with joint support from the EU and UNDP, is also scheduled to takeplace in February 1996.
The GOR expressed the desire that the 1996 Round Table focus on the following threethemes, a proposition to which donors agreed at the November Thematic Consultation held inKigali: • Justice and security- to provide support for measures to strengthen internal and externalsecurity, demobilisation, assistance to the justice system following the genocide and initiatives to ensure popular participation in stable political institutions.
• Transition from humanitarian aid to development - to strengthen food security, reintegratereturning; refugees and provide support to vulnerable groups. in addition to focusing onmodalities of coordination for UN agencies and NGOs.
• Capacity building - to cover organisational reform and capacity building in the public sector.
while strengthening national execution of the development process and technical assistancepolicy.
With the support of UNDP, the Government of Rwanda has established three task forces, onefor each theme, with an additional working group addressing the necessary macro-economicframework for recovery and development over the 1996-98 period. Under the direction of thePrime Minister's office' all GOR Ministries are involved in drafting sectarial strategies forpresentation at the Round Table and in contributing to the work of the task forces.
Draft document on sectorial policies by each Ministry is scheduled to be finalised by 2"January 1996 when representatives of all Ministries will meet with the Prime Minister'soffice. Input documentation will be finalised and discussed within the GOR and with donorsduring February and early March and final versions are scheduled to be available at the end ofMarch.
B. Economic and Financial Situation
At the end of 1995, annual budgetary revenue is estimated to have reached a total of RWF20.9 billion (about US$ 70 million), surpassing the target of RWF 19.4 billion projected withIMF assistance in June 1995. As in the past, the largest components of 1995 revenue camefrom taxes on goods and services and on international trade, 41% and 4S% respectively. Onthe spending side, military expenditure has accounted for 4.5% of GDP, a relatively high ratioby intemational standards. The GOR will, however, have incurred a total budget deficit(commitment basis) of RWF 17.2 billion, against initial estimates of RWF 21.8 billion. Thisreduced deficit has been achieved through both higher revenue collection and lower expenditurethan anticipated. A sustainable budgetary framework in the future would call for a significantreduction in military expenditure in the immediate years ahead.
Budgetary support from donors during 1995 came mainly from: (1) drawings on "counterpartfunds" from Belgium, Canada, the European Union, Gerrnany, the Netherlands, the UnitedStates and the World Bank; (2) disbursements from the UNDP managed Trust Funds, inparticular contributions from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; and (3) direct supportfrom bilateral donors for selected debt repayments and rehabilitation activities. Thesecontributions were insufficient to meet the deficit and the Treasury is estimated to haveincurred additional arrears of RWF 10.9 billion (domestic: 7.5 and external 3.3). Much higherimports by the private sector are needed to generate the necessary counterpart funds forbudgetary funding.
In the external area, coffee exports are now expected to total 17,000 tones in 1995, some 15%higher than anticipated earlier. Proceeds from exports and disbursements from the WorldBank's Emergency Recovery Credit (US$ 28 million to date), the IMFs Compensatory andContingency Financing Facility (US$ 13.6 million) and the African Development Bank (US$18.8 million) have contributed to stabilise the exchange rate. The Central Bank's strict policystance on refinancing, has also forced commercial banks to sell their dollar holdings. As aconsequence, the panty of the US dollar has been hovering, under RWF 300, after havingpeaked at RWF 328 on 14 August 1995. At the end of December 1995, Rwanda's grossinternational reserves amounted to US$ 82.1 million, providing an import coverage of 4.7months against 1.3 months at the end of 1994. This should allow the current exchange ratelevels to be maintained in the months ahead.
In spite of bilateral donor support to settle external arrears and debt service to selected multilateral donors, mainly the World Bank and the African Development Bank, Rwanda stillincurred public debt arrears as of December 1995, bringing the external outstanding debt to94% of GDP, against 56% two years earlier. The country's debt burden remains heavy and acontinuation of prudent borrowing policies is still necessary.
The Government has maintained a tight monetary policy since March 1995 when it decided to liberalise the exchange rate. More specifically, domestic credit has only increased byapproximately 0.5% per month, to accommodate net claims on the private sector for coffeetrading and exports. Increases in the private demand for credit was offset by the decline in netclaims on the public sector (including public enterprises). Money supply has been increasing byapproximately 2% since March 1995, in line with the rapid accumulation of foreign reserves. Inthis context of controlled growth in money supply and a stabilised exchange rate, price inflation,which reached 6% a month over the May-July period, has slowed to an average monthly rate of0.6% between August and November. Attention to projected budgetary deficits in the future,including a continuation of budgetary support, is desirable to enable the GOR to maintain astable macroeconomic framework.
C. Capacity Building
As a result of assistance provided since September 1995 under UNDP's Economic Management Capacity Building program to the Ministry of Public Service, the process oftesting candidates for over 300 posts in Government has been completed. The appointment ofDirectors in nearly all Ministries is now underway.
On 23 December, forty vehicles were transferred to the Government of Rwanda under the UNDP project "Urgent Assistance to the Rwandese Administration". The vehicles weredelivered to the Ministry of Transport for distribution to various branches of the Government.
The objective of this project is to provide transport and office equipment to the RwandeseGovernment. The project, made possible by US$ 1 8 million provided by the Government ofthe Netherlands to the secretary-general’s Trust Fund for Rwanda, is executed by the UnitedNations Office for Project Services (UNOPS).
In order to begin restoring the Rwandese National Commission for UNESCO in the aftermathof the war and genocide, the Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Culture(MINESUPRES), in cooperation with UNESCO, organised a training and informationseminar from 4 to 8 December 1995. The seminar, held in Kigali, gathered representatives ofthe public and private sector co-operating with UNESCO at various levels.
D. Justice
( l ) Judicial System
Reactivating the judicial system remains a priority of UN agencies operating inRwanda. Although progress has been slow, due to the GOR's lack of capacity andthe enormous complexity of bringing to justice those suspected of genocide, somesteps were taken in December. Assessment of material needs for the properfunctioning of the Supreme Court has now been completed. It is expected that theseneeds will be covered through contributions made by Germany. Priority areas of theMinistry of Justice were identified and implementation of programs designed torehabilitate the judicial system is underway.
In accordance with a recommendation made during the recent Conference onGenocide, Impunity and Accountability held in Kigali the Ministry of Justiceannounced its desire to establish 11 "special chambers' for the treatment of genocidecases. These chambers may be supported by six international experts recruitedtrough the UNDP/DDSMS "Support to the Rehabilitation of the Judiciary (Phase II)project. The four judicial advisors who arrived in September 1995 (prior to thedecision by the Ministry of Justice to suspend deployment of the remaining 46judicial advisors) will be utilised public prosecutor's office. Incentive measures arebeing examined in order to increase the productivity of judiciary public servants andattract qualified and experienced candidates in key position . According to the plan,up to l,000 persons could receive enhanced remuneration through the, forementionedUNDP/I:)DSMS project.
According to HRFOR, only on "Commission de Triage" met in December, and twodetainees were released, one of whom had been accused of participating in thegenocide. The work of the "Commissions de Triage" is scheduled to increaseconsiderably in January 1996 as the necessary administrative decisions have beenprepared and approved by the GOR The Government of the Netherlands has recentlyprovided US$ 2,839,000 through the UNDP Trust Fund to be used according topriorities set by the Ministry of Justice. The Minister of Justice has decided tosupport the "Commissions de Triage" through the creation of a technicalsub-committee. This sub-committee will compile legal files for those accused ofgenocide, advise existing commissions at the prefecture level working oninvestigations, and create a new "Commission de Triage" at the commune level.
These new structures are expected to ensure that decisions made by representativesof the judicial system at both the commune and prefecture level are respected. Anadditional amount of US$500,000 pledged by Sweden has also been programmed forstrengthening the "Commissions de Triage".
The creation of case files continued to advance slowly, due mainly to the absence of "Inspecteurs de police judiciare" (IPJs) in certain communes. Those communes whereIPJs are deployed showed progress in the creation of dossiers. Elsewhere, theadministration of justice became increasingly paralysed as a result of continuingarrests of judicial personnel. In Cyangugu Prefecture, one magistrate and two moreIPJs were arrested, bringing the number of judicial officials arrested since June in thatprefecture to seven. Two of the six IPJs were provisionally released in December.
Whatever the validity of the accusations against the IPJs who have been arrested,their arrests have resulted in other judicial personnel feeling insecure in their work. InGikongoro Prefecture, six magistrates are now detained.
UNHCR donated US$ 100,000 in office equipment to courts and the prosecutor’soffice in eleven prefectures and the University of But are Faculty of Law, as part of aprogram to strengthen the country’s judicial system and provide it with adequateworking tools. The UNHCR effort includes seminars on arrest and detentionprocedures, in which civilian and military authorities from all prefectures will haveparticipated by the time of the closing session in January.
UNESCO-PEER took part in discussions organised by UNICEF and the Ministry forthe Family and Advancement of Women concerning a legal revision for appropriatetreatment of child criminals. The discussions, in which other Ministries (MINIJUST,MININTER, MINADEF) and several NGOs (JSF, ASRG, SCF-UIC, SCF-US, Terre desHommes, ASOFERWA) participated, lead to the conclusion that most crimescommitted by children should be judged quickly, while the judgment of thosechildren linked to the genocide should be the subject of a popular consultation first.
(2) Prisons and Detention Centers
According to ICRC figures, the total number of detainees in Rwanda’s prisons anddetention centers increased from S7,218 at the end of November to 63,417 at the endof December. The number of detention centers within Rwanda, visited on a regularbasis by ICRC teams, rose from 253 to 258. The ICRC also continued its emergencysupport to the 14 prisons under Ministry of Justice jurisdiction, providing 550 MTsof food in December. This is less than in previous months as Rwandese authoritieswere able to ensure 65% of needs in the prisons.
Although transfers in November to new sites alleviated some of the overcrowdingproblems faced by detainees, overcrowding remained acute. These new sites werefunded principally through the UNDP Trust Fund. However, conditions inGikongoro, Kibuye and Cyangugu Prisons are now widely considered to beuntenable. In Butare Prefecture, which has seen many arrests in previous months,HRFOR received reports that fewer arrests were being conducted as a result ofovercrowding in "communal cachots". In other prefectures arrests continued.
The aforementioned Dutch funding will also be used to extend detention facilities,thus relieving prison overcrowding. The Ministry of Justice has proposedconstructing a security wall at the ONATRACOM detention center so as to renderthe site operational. An extension to Cyangugu Prison is planned and is consideredparticularly pressing as no provision has been made for a semi-permanent detentioncenter in this area' due to poor road access. Remaining funds will be used asinstitutional support for the Ministry of Justice. These proposals have beensubmitted to the GOR and UNDP for approval.
At a meeting of the Rwanda Local Operational Support Group on 18 December, theRepresentative from the Netherlands explained that his Government viewedproviding support for the construction of detention centers as a humanitariangesture which could help avoid another crisis such as the one which occurred atKibeho. The SRSG, also present, concurred with this analysis and expressedappreciation for the support provided by the Dutch Government in this area. Specificattention will be given to monitoring and evaluating the implementation process inview of the unusual nature of the limding modality and the sensitive role of the"Commissions de Triage" in selecting those to be arrested.
3) Police and Gendarmerie
UNDP, in conjunction with the Rwandese Ministry of Planning and Ministry ofInterior, signed on 15 December a budget revision which contributes an additionalUS$ 50,000 to the construction of the Communal Police Training School in Gishari.
This addition to the budget comes from a contribution made by the Government ofIreland.
E. Social Sectors
(1) Health
World AIDS Day on I December was celebrated in Kigali with numerous cultural andsports activities organised by the National AIDS Control Program. UNICEF assistedin several activities such as the production of AIDS awareness pamphlets andwomen's sarongs carrying AIDS prevention messages. A cross-country run,organised by the Ministry of Youth, was also funded by the agency. UNDP Kigaliwas represented at the Intentional Conference on Aids in Africa, held in Kampala,Uganda, from 10-14 December 1995. The Conference, cosponsored by WHO , calledon the intemational community to assist poorer countries in their fight against AIDSand urged political leaders to support national programs to promote the rights ofpeople affected by HIV.
As part of a coordinated campaign against HIV/AIDS in the school environment, UNESCO-PEER participated in sensitising pupils and teachers at sample schools inByumba, Gisenyi and Gitarama Prefectures and through a radio broadcast interview.
The members of the Technical Commission working on the project HlV/AIDS/IEC(Information, Education, Communication), in which UNESCO-PEER participates, arereadapting, for use within Rwanda, already existing didactic materials from varioussources.
Following a report of two meningitis cases in the National Police School inRwamagana Health District, a joint Ministry of Health/WHO mission was dispatchedto confirm the information. In response to the missions recommendations, theschool's entire population (650 persons) was immunised on the same day. Follow-upindicated that no more cases were reported after the immunisation operation.
In order to strengthen the malaria control strategies at the district level, WHOprovided technical and financial assistance to the Ministry of Health's NationalMalaria Control Program in organising a five-day training session. Eighteenparticipants from all the health regions in Rwanda attended the session which wasalso supported by the Mission de Coopération Belge.
Following the findings of the study on the chemosensitivity of P. falciparum tochloroquine as mentioned in the November, UN Situation Report WHO recommendsthat chloroquine remain the first-line antimalaria drug. WHO, among others, suggeststhat a plan be prepared to have enough sulfadoxie-pyrimethamin (fansidar) in thecountry as the secondline antimalaria drug.
The WHO "Safe Motherhood" project, funded by the Italian Government, hascontinued its activities, namely the training of health personnel in maternal and childhealth. These activities were implemented in the five health regions targeted by theproject (Kigali, Butare, Gitarama, Kibungo and Byumba).
The Ministry of Health, in collaboration with WHO, organised a two-day workshopto finalize the National Mental Health Policy. Twenty participants from the Ministriesand NGOs most involved in mental health problems attended the workshop.
UNICEF is funding Population Services International (PSI), the NGO responsible forthe marketing and sale of condoms in Rwanda, for the adaptation and translation of acomic book, originally developed for AIDS control in West Africa. The comic bookseries, based on a character who gives wise advice to her friends, illustrates theimportance of safe sex and the use of condoms.
The last segment of the UNICEF-sponsored training program in EPI (ExpandedProgram of Immunisation) was completed in December. Over 200 health professionalsbenefited from the training in national vaccination policies, WHO norms for safe and effective inoculation, mass mobilisation and management of vaccination campaigns.
The first Oral Rehydration Treatment (ORT) "corners" were set up in Kigali and inByumba in December. These are special facilities within a health center wheremothers with sick children are taught to treat diarrhoeal diseases at home. Since5%-10% of an ambulatory population suffers from diarrhoeal illnesses, this self-helpmethod decongests out-patient health facilities and helps patients to easily andquickly relieve the problem.
In December, 150 persons in six prefectures benefited from UNICEF-supportedtraining of nutrition field workers. UNICEF is also financing a sensitisation campaign,organised by the Ministries of Health and Commerce, on the importance of iodine forsalt importers and traders. The country-wide campaign began in Ruhengeri on 20December.
In December, ICRC focused its health activities on the reconstruction of healthcenters and the medical needs in places of detention. Two ICRC doctors and 14nurses worked in Rwandese prisons treating detainees in need of medical assistance.
They helped establish and run dispensaries where Rwandese staff carry outday-to-day medical consultations and treatments.
Under the auspices of ICRC, the French and German Red Cross continued torehabilitate 14 health centers which were damaged during the conflict in 1994. Inaddition, ICRC supported one health center in Kibuye. The buildings are repaired, thewater and electricity re-established and new medical equipment and furniturepurchased. The Red Cross supplies the centers with medicine and trains the localpersonnel to provide services for pre and post-natal care, deliveries. health educationand AIDS prevention. The centers cover the basic medical needs of up to 450~•000Rwandese. ICRC also has emergency medical supplies on hand, including a mobilesurgical unit' ready to be used immediately in case the need arises.
As a result of the GOR's decision to expel several NGOs working in the health sector,several of which had agreements with WFP, some changes have occurred: FTC inButare has assumed responsibility for the 200 children formerly cared for by Terredes Hommes. MDM, which had been asked to leave, has now been reinstated (inCyangugu Prefecture) for another six months. The health centers run by MSF-France,six in Gikongoro and four in Kibuye, have been closed.
(2) Water / Sanitation
The on-the-job training for rural water technicians' supported by UNICEF, is nearcompletion. During December another 94 individuals and one hydrologist receivedtraining in Butare. In the process. two natural springs, to serve a rural population of 500, were protected by the trainees. By the end of the program 145 technicians willhave been trained throughout Rwanda. WFP is rehabilitating the entire water systemin Kibuye, and will soon be starting in Butare.
In order to strengthen the managerial and the technical skills of regional water andsanitation supervisors, the Ministry of Heath organised a five-day training sessionwith WHO financial assistance. Among other topics, water quality controltechniques were covered during the session.
Two ICRC programs in Kibuye and Gisenyi Prefectures, which were started inFebruary and support 200,000 people in their effort to access sufficient potable water,continued in December. A third ICRC program, involving 17 rehabilitated waternetworks bringing clean water to more than 100,000 people in Ruhengeri Prefecture,was officially handed over to MINITRAPE and local authorities.
As part of its efforts to increase Government operational capacity, UNICEF hasprovided ELECTROGAZ with some 600,000 litters of fuel since the beginning of 1995.
The fuel is used to run generators that operate the country's water pumping stations.
In December an additional 205,000 litters were provided for the same purpose.
As a one-time measure, UNICEF provided the Ministry of Works with FRW 6 million(approximately US$ 20,000) for fuel to run the trucks and cars used for thesupervision of water and sanitation activities. Earlier in the year UNICEF had donated20 motorcycles and 20 vehicles to the Ministry. UNICEF also provided Kigaliauthorities with FRW 1.5 million (US$ 5,000) for fuel to run the city's garbagecollection operation.
At the request of CIEM, the national committee responsible for the reburial ofgenocide victims, UNICEF is donating materials to be used to exhume and rebury upto 50,000 bodies as well as to build a tomb in Gikongoro Prefecture. During thereporting period the prison in Kibungo was temporarily emptied due to the transfer ofdetainees to the Nsinda semi-permanent site. ICRC rapidly upgraded hygienefacilities at the detention center where one toilet had been shared by 500 detainees.
Work on two septic tanks is ongoing.
(3) Education
As an additional support to formal education in Rwanda' UNICEF and UNESCOPEERcontinued distributing school supplies. In December, a total of 600 cartons of whitechalk were distributed to schools in Byumba, Ruhengeri and Gisenyi Prefectures.
UNESCOPEER has now finalised phase A of the Non-formal Education Project (NFE)by targeting youth in the nine NFE pilot project centers for the distribution of literacymaterials, math textbooks and calendars. Approximately 1300 copies of each item have been printed and distributed to some 1000 trainees and trainers in Kigali, Butareand Gisenyi Prefectures. Five classrooms were built by ADRA in the Mutara, otherclassrooms and schools are being rehabilitated, but have not been finished.
A four-person team, comprised of representatives from the Ministry of Primary andSecondary Education, the University of Butare' UNICEF and the OverseasDevelopment Administration (ODA), concluded an assessment study on languageinstruction in schools. Although the mission had originally intended to have adetermining influence on the policy of language instruction in primary schools, theGOR's decision to introduce English into the first year of primary school, along withFrench, was taken prior to the study's completion. According to UNICEFconsultants, experience from several countries has shown that in practice this policyhas produced unsatisfactory results.
The initial stage of the Green Hills of Peace project was finalised in December. Thisyouth-mobilisation project was launched in October by the Ministry of Youth withfinancial backing from UNICEF (US$ 80,000). The first phase revolved around thesensitisation of communities on the project itself and a call for volunteers to help inthe organisation of subsequent activities. The next step is to form sports teams in tenpilot culturally-inclined, dance and singing troupes will be organised and instruction inthese arts provided. The Green Hills of Peace project, designed for culturalreinforcement and the promotion of a healthy competitive spirit among youth, is alsoexpected to have therapeutic effects for a generation of young people that hasexperienced genocide, displacement and poverty.
Special human rights promotional events were organised by HRFOR in connectionwith Human Rights Day in Butare, Gisenyi, Kibuye and Ruhengeri. On 10 December,the Chief of the HRFOR Mission addressed the closing ceremonies of the week ofevents organised by CLADHO. Two more in the series of seminars on arrest -anddetention procedures organised by the Ministry of Justice, in cooperation withHRFOR, UNHCR and others, were held during the month.
(4) Communications / Media
During the month of December the project Rwanda Media completed the final activityof its 1995 program, a training seminar for Kinyarwanda speaking journalists.
Seventeen participant, attended a two-week introductory-session on journalism.
Thanks to this training, 95 journalists from the radio and written-press benefited fromthe Rwanda Media Initiative. In January 1996, 12 journalists from the radio, televisionand written-press will attend a 15-day training session on judiciary reporting in orderto cover the International Tribunal's work in a professional manner. Magistrates andlawyers will help the journalists to familiarise themselves with legal terminology and some specialists of judicial reports will share their experience with the seminarparticipants.
F. Productive Sectors
(1) Agriculture
During the month of December the FAO undertook various activities in theframework: of its projects for populations at-risk. In particular, FAO continued tocollect information on distributions of agricultural inputs for the 1996 Season(September 1995-January 1996). In collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture(MINAGRI), FAO conducted an information campaign for the promotion of vegetablegardens. WFP and FAO also undertook an evaluation of the current season's harvestand food needs for the first semester of 1996.
A joint FAOIWFP mission was fielded from 27 November to 11 December 1995 inorder to determine crops expectations for the 1996 A season (September 1995 toJanuary 1996) and to forecast food needs for the first quarter of 1996. Visits wereundertaken in all prefectures of the country and a provisional report has beendrafted. Overall, the proportion of cultivated land has increased compared to lastseason but a drought period during the growing season will decrease beanproductivity. On the whole, output will be almost 25% higher than for the 1995 Aseason, but will be lower than the pre-war production. A food deficit for the firstquarter of 1996 is expected in cereals production, in leguminous and in tubers butless than the 1995 deficit. Food aid will therefore still be indispensable.
WFP is in the process of rehabilitating ISAR/Butare’s experimental plots and will berehabilitating 220 Ha. of vegetable gardens in Butare. WFP has also beenrehabilitating the tea plantations in Cyangugu. As a result, production and theamount of tea being cultivated has increased. CODERVAM, a cooperative in theMutara, has improved its rice production capacity using food-for-work.
After discussions with women's groups in Ruhengeri and Byumba, UNICEF hasdecided to test a new and more integrated approach to income-generating activitieswhich would give a greater degree of self-sufficiency to women's groups. In pastprojects, management of income-generating activities was vested with partner NGOs,largely because women's groups were weak and still recovering from the devastatingeffects of the war and genocide. The new strategy will still use NGOs but only asproviders of credit. The women's groups will each be divided into production andmarketing units. A management structure, through the formation of a committeewithin each group, will be established and the whole enterprise of managing finances,organising production and marketing the final product will now lie in the hands of theassociation itself. Around 25 women's groups (615 women) in Ruhengeri and Byumba 2) Livestock
As in November, the FAO's livestock project focused on assisting the Director ofAnimal Production with implementation of its vaccination campaign againstperipneumonie contagious bovine (PPCB) and bovine plague during the month ofDecember. Vaccinations were administered to 50,000 head of cattle in N'Garama,Gituza and Murambi communes in the Mutara region, bringing to l 26,000 the numberof animals vaccinated since the beginning of the campaign in mid-November. Thecampaign was somewhat disrupted due to the outbreak of several cases offoot-and-mouth disease. The infected animals were unable to come down from thehills, while healthy animals had to be isolated to avoid contamination. WFP furnishedfeed for the vaccination campaign. Public awareness efforts are underway in KibungoPrefecture in preparation for extension of the vaccination campaign. Donors aresought to support continuation of the campaign, as FAO' s assistance in this domainterminated at the end of 1995.
The activities of zoosanitary posts are proceeding. Blood sampling is carried out onfive bovines per herd in order to track down the PPCB. In December, 592 animals weretested, 48% of which tested positive for PPCB.
UNICEF received 3,000 day-old chicks from France on 16 December. The chicks werehanded over to the Ministry of Agriculture. Once fully grown, they will be given towomen's associations and other beneficiaries for income-generation purposes.
G. Resettlement and Reintegration of Returnees
Returnees appear to have been generally well-received during the month. InRuhengeri Prefecture, for example, no major housing disputes were reported. InButare Prefecture, returnees reported no mistreatment or harassment. Of thosereturning, only a small percentage were arrested. Almost of all those arrested were men, who represented aminority of the returnees. Nine returnees were reported missing from communes inCyangugu Prefecture during December, four of whom later returned. HRFOR isinvestigating this matter further.
Several rehabilitation projects financed by UNHCR have been realised or are nearingcompletion, including work on the infrastructure of health centers and the hospital ofGitarama and centers in Gisenyi. Roofing material for 1,500 shelters has beendelivered to Kigali Rural Prefecture and another 100 shelters are to be completedsoon in Cyangugu, as part of a 30,000-unit Rwanda-wide UNHCR building project On 21 December the President of Rwanda inaugurated 103 houses built for widowsby ARDEC using FFW in Rwanda (Gitarama prefecture). Also during December,another WFP/IJNHCR/MINIREISO housing program - 36 in Butare, 80 in Gikongoro, 80 inGitararna and l 20 in Kibungo.
WFP has made contingency plans to meet requirements in the event of a large-scalerepatriation of refugees. Refugees will be integrated as quickly as possible into FFWprojects throughout the entire country. WFP has planned three phases in its preparations fora massive influx of Rwandese refugees. In phase 1, WFP has stocked 1438 MTs of cereals,346 MTs of pulses and 56 MTs of fats at the six entry points into Rwanda, sufficient for theneeds of 93,578 people. In phase II, WFP will have stocked 455 MTs of cereals, 137 MTs ofpulses, and 23 MTs of fats in Gikongoro and Ruhengeri as a back-up to the two main bordercrossings, sufficient for 18,961 people. In Phase III, WFP will stock; 822 MTs of cereals' 247MTs of pulses' and 41 MTs of fats in Kigali to meet additional needs. This latter amount issufficient for 34,251 people. WFP has buffer stocks in Kigali for the repatriation operation'amounting to 734 MTs of cereals, 220 MTs of pulses and 37 MTs of fats. This is sufficientfor 30,581 people. In addition to the aforementioned stocks, WFP has regional food aid stocks'located in Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire which can be mobilised in case of a massiveinflux of refugees.
On 15 December, the Ministry of Planning and UNDP signed a project for the "Urgent UrbanResettlement of refugees". The one-year project will be executed by the Ministry ofRehabilitation and Social Integration (MINIREISO) in cooperation with the UN Center forHuman Settlements (Habitat) and will start on I January 1996. The budget' US$ 1.5 million, isfinanced by the United Kingdorn. The objective of the project is to facilitate the resettlementof returnees in urban and semi-urban areas by preparing and developing sites. The mission toprepare proposals for reinstallation and reinsertion activities in support of the Government'sAccelerated Plan of Action for the Reinstallation and the Reinsertion of Refugees andFormerly Displaced Persons has been completed. Following field visits, two UNDPconsultants prepared, in cooperation with MINIREISO representatives, a project documentoutlining the management structure ("structure de pilotage") and the personnel requirementsfor the management of activities falling within the GOR's Accelerated Plan of Action. Thesecond part of the document contains specific proposals for reinstallation programs in Gisenyiand Kibungo Prefectures. These programs encourage a participatory approach and stronginter-ministerial, inter-agency and donor cooperation in the following sectors: communitydevelopment, agricultural production, income and employment generation, credit' health,water/sanitation' education' rural infrastructure, housing and human security/protection.
On 9 December UNDP signed a Preparatory Assistance project to support MINIREISO inthe implementation of the aforementioned Accelerated Plan of Action. The one-year projectwill be executed by UNOPS and implemented by MINIRElSO. The budget is US$ 1,159,000,of which US$ 186,336 comes from Dutch co-financing. This preparatory assistance will reinforce Government and local administration capacity to plan, implement, monitor andevaluate reinstallation activities at both the national and local level. The project will put intoplace the initial elements of the "structure de pilotage'` described in the Plan of Action,financing the posts of Chief Technical Advisor, national and UNV officers, and supplyingthem with the necessary equipment and support staff.
Within the framework of the UNDP "Emergency Assistance Program for the Rehabilitationand Reconstruction of Kigali and Other Urban Centers (Phase II)", the rehabilitation of theadministrative wing of the Parliament Building has begun in earnest after the satisfactoryrehabilitation of the General Assembly Hall. Technical and bidding documents for thedevelopment of Gisozi, a resettlement site (25 Ha.) in northwest Kigali and planningdocuments for the development of Kimironko (116 Ha.) northeast Kigali are ready forcontractors' bids. Land acquisition and compensation the property owners continuesto be an impediment for the development of both sites, particularly Gisozi. The Centerfor Human Settlements (Habitat) is awaiting GOR action to settle land acquisition andcompensation questions in order to enable the Habitat team to proceed withdevelopment of the sites. Technical and bidding documents for the rehabilitation ofpublic buildings in Kigali and other urban centers are ready as well. By earlyFebruary contractors will be invited to bid for implementation of the projects.
As in recent months, Rwanda continued the process of rebuilding, moving furtheralong the humanitarian/development continuum toward greater self-reliance andsustainability. However, the presence of some 1.8 million Rwandese refugees inneighboring countries lends a great deal of uncertainty to the rehabilitation process.
Although both Zairian and Tanzanian authorities have reiterated that Rwandeserefugees are only temporary guests, Zaire's decision to retract the 31 Decemberdeadline for the departure of refugees on its territory has decreased the sense ofurgency among international organisations active in Rwanda. Officials in bothcountries again expressed their willingness to adhere to the November 1995agreement reached in Cairo. Zaire, in particular, has taken action to curtail theactivities of intimidators in the refugee camps. For its part, the GOR reaffirmed itscommitment to establish the necessary conditions for a safe return of refugees.
Although conditions in detention centers in Rwanda remain extremely critical, someprogress was made in December to relieve overcrowding and reactivate the judiciary.
Additional financial and material assistance is desperately needed. Members of theinternational community in Rwanda are hopeful that the indictments handed down bythe International Tribunal will give impetus to the judicial process within Rwanda.
During December, the Government of Rwanda adopted three positions which haveraised numerous questions among members of the international community: (1) the expulsion of 43 international NGOs; (2) the adoption of a strong stance regardingUNAMIR's mandate and equipment; and (3) the imposition of fees for the use ofcommunications equipment used in Rwanda. Discussions are underway and everypossible effort is being made among concerned parties to overcome differences ofopinion and reach an understanding in all three areas. Although approaches maydiffer somewhat, the Government of Rwanda, donor countries, United NationsAgencies and other members of the international community continue to collaborateclosely in their efforts to achieve a common objective - the establishment of a justand peaceful society in Rwanda.



Korsika – diesmal Korsika • Korsisches Leben, Land und Leute • UNESCO Weltkulturerbe „Calanches de Piana“ • Charmante Hotels in Corte und Porto Korsika gilt unter Kennern als die abwechslungsreichste und spektakulärste Mittelmeer-insel. In der Heimat Napoleons verschmilzt die Milde des mediterranen Lichtes mit einer rauen und ursprünglichen Bergwelt. Begleitet von einer er


Psychological Treatment for AdolescentDepression: Perspectives on the Past,Present, and FutureLouise Hayes,1,2 Patricia A. Bach3 and Candice P. Boyd4 1 School of Behavioural and Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Ballarat, Australia2 Ballarat Health Services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, Ballarat, Australia3 Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, United States of Ame

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