This blog entry presents a case study of using provide automatic UI generation for the
The Health Portal is a Web-based application designed around a Service
Oriented Architecture and built using. It serves the
and is deployed to some 3,000 hospitals and health clinics across Spain. The integration of Metawidget
allowed Telefónica to reduce development and ongoing maintenance costs. It furthered allowed the
Health Portal to offer a level of flexibility and functionality not possible in previous products. 2. Organisation and Product Overview
Telefónica () is one of the largest fixed-line and mobile telecommunications companies in the
world. It operates globally across Europe and Latin America with headquarters in Madrid, Spain (figure
1). Telefónica was founded in 1924, and was originally government owned until being privatised in 1997.
Since then it has grown to over 260,000 employees with an annual revenue in excess of 60 billion
Figure 1: Telefónica headquarters in Madrid, Spain
The company was looking to develop a product for the Spanish National Health System (NHS). The
Spanish NHS is similar to that found in many European countries. It consists of a network of health
clinics and hospitals across different states and territories. Each centre employs multiple healthcare
workers with an array of specialities including
. They are funded through both public, government healthcare and private healthcare
The Telefónica Health Portal was to be an online platform providing a range of services to health clinics.
The Health Portal's functionality would include administering a clinic (see figure 2) and scheduling
physicians (see figure 3). Most relevant to this case study, the Health Portal could also serve as an
intermediary between clinics and healthcare insurers. Such an intermediary would provide three key
benefits compared to existing manual processes. First, it would provide interactivity: if additional
documentation or authorisation codes were required during submission of an insurance claim, the insurer
could request them at the time the claim was being lodged. Second, it would provide immediacy: after
the claim was lodged, the Health Portal would report back a status such as approved, rejected or
pending validation. Finally, it would improve processing times: claims could be lodged and payments
made more quickly, and clinics could see real-time reports of settled payments against their accounts as
Figure 2: Health Portal administration Figure 3: Health Portal scheduler
This description of the Health Portal, simplified for the purposes of this case study, is depicted visually in
Figure 4: Simplified UML diagram of Health Portal
However, business analysis showed that the data needed in order to lodge a claim varied for each
private healthcare insurer. Within each insurer, it further varied by speciality (GP, paediatrician, etc.).
And within each speciality, it further varied by type of activity (initial consultation, follow-up visit etc.).
The Health Portal would need one insurance claim form per insurer, per speciality and per activity.
Worse, as new insurance companies signed on to the service, new forms would need to be developed.
This ongoing development cost would threaten the economic viability of the Health Portal. Instead,
Telefónica decided they needed a way to dynamically define portions of each insurance screen. Indeed,
they wanted the insurer to be able to dynamically define their forms themselves. This was where
3. Integration of Metawidget
This case study interviewed members of the project team, including the project manager.
The discussion opened around the Health Portal's requirement to dynamically define portions of each
insurance form. The project manager explained: "We had a need to dynamically create input data
screens, we searched the different alternatives available in the market, and the one that fitted best was
Metawidget". He explained they considered several alternatives but "after an exhaustive analysis of
available tools we decided that the tool that best fitted our needs was Metawidget".
The Health Portal needed to provide a range of functionality. This required a rich UI with several
different types of screens and aesthetics. There was no requirement to automatically generate the entire
UI. Indeed for many screens doing so would have been impractical. For example figures 2 and 3 show
screens that were manually tuned for usability. It would not have suited the project to impose a generic,
stylized CRUD UI (or OOUI) across every screen. The team only wanted to use automatic generation for
selected portions of their application. In addition, they had already chosen their preferred UI framework
and tools (GWT 2011) and developed several screens using traditional techniques. It would not have
suited them if the UI generator had tried to dictate their technology choices. Together, these
observations validated Metawidget's approach to defining 'useful bounds' around UI generation (Kennard
The team wanted the dynamic portions of their insurance claim forms to be definable by the insurer.
They built a UI to allow the insurer to specify their particular fields, including the name, data type and
other metadata (such as whether they were optional fields). The team then needed these fields to be
reflected on the clinic's screens. The application was built around a rich, Web-based UI making
initiating an insurance claim, the UI would first invoke a Web service and supply the id of the insurer.
The Web service would respond with an XML definition of the insurer's form requirements, including
portions that described the dynamic fields. A typical response would be:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <mensaje co_op="R00210"> <R00210> <cif-aseguradora>00000000X</cif-aseguradora> <co-facturador>00000000X</co-facturador> <respuesta></respuesta> <timestamp>0000000000000000</timestamp> <agrupaciones> <agrupacion codigo="0001"> <nombre>AGRUPACION</nombre> <especialidades> <especialidad codigo="01"> <nombre>MEDICINA GENERAL</nombre> <actos> <acto codigo="0001"> <nombre>CONSULTA</nombre> <campos-variables> .GP initial consult dynamic fields. </campos-variables> </acto> <acto codigo="0002"> <nombre>REVISION</nombre> <campos-variables> .GP follow-up visit dynamic fields. </campos-variables> </acto> </actos> </especialidad> <especialidad codigo="02"> <nombre>PEDIATRIA</nombre> <actos> <acto codigo="0001"> <nombre>CONSULTA</nombre> <campos-variables> .pediatrician initial consult dynamic fields. </campos-variables> </acto> <acto codigo="0002"> <nombre>REVISION</nombre> <campos-variables> .pediatrician follow-up visit dynamic fields. </campos-variables> </acto> </actos> </especialidad> .more especialidad. </especialidades> </agrupacion> .more agrupacion. </agrupaciones> </R00210> </mensaje>
The UI generator would extract those portions of the XML response related to dynamic fields and use
them to generate its UI. This requirement validated Metawidget's approach to performing generation at
runtime. It is a scenario where a system's input is itself source code - adding new functionality and
screens to an application. Runtime analysis is needed to accommodate such a scenario.
Because the fields were to be defined declaratively, visual IDE tools such as were not
applicable. And because the screens must be generated dynamically at runtime, rather than statically at
development time, model-based tools such as not suitable either. What was needed was a
runtime generator that could source its metadata from arbitrary sources, in this case embedded in an
XML response from a web service. As the project manager commented: "The main feature [of
Metawidget] for us was the possibility to dynamically, based on rules stored in our database [and
exposed via a Web service], create input screens based on user selections". The team were able to plug
in a custom inspector to suit their needs. But they did not require multiple inspectors, as the web service
provided a single source of metadata, so they did not require collation. This validated Metawidget's
approach to making collation pluggable via CompositeInspector.
Once the UI had been generated and the data captured, it was to be written back into the same XML
structure and returned via a second web service. This was an interesting design decision. Its rationale
was that there would then be a single piece of XML containing both field names, data types and values.
This XML could be stored directly in the database. Screens using it could then be recreated and
redisplayed at a later time, even if the insurer's original XML definition changed. For example if, having
used the Health Portal for a few months, the insurer decided they needed to alter the fields on their
form, the previous several months worth of claims and associated invoices could still be rendered in their
original format. This was an unusual requirement because it meant the UI data was not to be stored
back to a domain object. Indeed, there was no domain object to store back to. Rather, data values had
to be read and written into a fragment of XML. The team were able to plug in a custom widget
processor to achieve this, validating Metawidget's approach to pluggable processing.
Finally, the presentation of the dynamic portions was required to be different for different screens, so as
to blend with the non-dynamic portions. For the 'lodge individual claim' and 'lodge multiple claims'
screens a three column layout was required, as shown in figures 5 and 6. The bottom of each dialog box
is generated by Metawidget. For the invoice screen a single column layout was preferred, as shown in
figure 7. The centre of the dialog box is generated by Metawidget. These differences in layout validated
Metawidget's approach to pluggable layouts. Figure 6: Metawidget is used while lodging Figure 5: Metawidget is used while lodging multiple claims individual claims Figure 7: Metawidget is used while printing invoices
Having detailed the organisation and product, and understood Metawidget's integration within it, the
case study turned to validating Metawidget's effectiveness. 4. Validation of Metawidget
This case study validated Metawidget against four themes.
The themes were derived from an overarching goal (GQM - Basili 1992) of Metawidget being a general
purpose solution accepted by developers and applicable to industry. 'Acceptance' was considered a
multi-faceted concern. First, a solution must have an obviousness to it: it must be approachable and
straightforward to conceptualise, with a learning curve no steeper than necessary. Second, a solution
should be convenient to use: it's API must be powerful but not cumbersome, and be more productive
than developing the same application without it. Third, a solution must be adaptable: it must work well
within a broad range of architectures, both front-end UI frameworks and back-end technologies. Finally,
a solution must be performant: imposing reasonable processor time, bandwidth and memory constraints
Such themes can be tested either quantitatively or qualitatively. There is appeal in the former, as
metrics such as 'number of lines of UI code saved', 'hours required to update the UI following changes
to the domain model' or 'number of API methods necessary to implement a UI' have an impersonal,
impartial character to them that conveys a sense of neutrality. However such thinking misses a critical
point of Metawidget: its success is tied to the personal, to the partial. If Metawidget saves developers
25% of their UI code but they find it awkward and laborious to use, it will not achieve developer
acceptance in significant numbers. If Metawidget can do more with fewer API calls but those calls are
obtuse and inflexible, its long-term adoption in a project will be unlikely to survive handover from one
developer to the next. If Metawidget can automatically update a UI in seconds, but that UI does not
appear the way the designer intended, it will not pass usability tests.
Rather, a more reliable measure arises from qualitative metrics. Metrics such as developer thoughts,
preferences, and satisfaction. It is possible to give these an impersonal, quantitative flavour using
techniques such as Likert scales (1932), but again doing so risks losing a critical essence. Given the
fragile, elusive nature of a quality such as 'acceptance', it seemed prudent this case study remain
qualitative. The next sections discuss Metawidget in the context of the four themes. 4.1. Obviousness
Prior to encountering Metawidget did you have any preconceptions regarding UI generation? If so, how
did Metawidget fit with those preconceptions? If not, could you identify with the gap Metawidget
defines? One team member recalled: "In our case [it was] more than preconceptions. We had actual
requirements. Requirements in concrete cases for generating UI, i.e. we needed a technology compatible
with GWT, it had to work with XML, and it also had to be able to work dynamically". The team already
had a product specification whose requirements included UI generation, so they were very clear about
The team member elaborated: "The Health Portal acts like a broker between insurance companies and
clinics/hospitals. When data flows between those two parts (e.g. a clinic sends a bill to the insurance
company), certain parts are common to all the insurance companies (such as the structure of worker's
'profiles' and of the medical 'acts') and others are not (bill numbering can be different, some include
authorisation number etc.). We wanted the insurance companies to be able to define and provide
(through XML) themselves these variable data for the benefit of both parties". The team understood this
was not a requirement they could fulfil using their existing technologies. It was an explicit requirement
for UI generation. This is unusual. It is distinct from a team who, say, were already using manual
techniques to construct their UIs and were looking for a way to automate their processes.
As you were getting started with Metawidget, did you find its parts arranged roughly where you
expected to find them? Were there any areas that stood out as being designed differently to you
expected? If so, what were they and what were you expecting? The team member reflected: "we really
didn't have so much expectation about that". Nevertheless, they were comfortable with what they found.
The project manager confirmed: "The [Metawidget] concept makes sense, and it gives opportunities to
create very flexible applications, where the input screens are easy to adapt to the user needs". Such
input screens can be seen in figures 5, 6 and 7, described previously. 4.2. Convenience
Having determined what you wanted Metawidget to do, how difficult did you find getting Metawidget to
do it? One team member responded: "Let's say the difficulty was medium. There were some features we
wanted but which Metawidget did not have at that time, and that did require some customisation of the
code". For these, the team were able to plug in their own inspectors and widget processors.
Were there scenarios where Metawidget demonstrated clear benefits over your usual techniques? The
team member validated: "More than clear benefits. With our requirements Metawidget was basically the
only option. Our usual techniques would not have done the job. The only other solution that came close
to meet our requirements was TICBO [a Customer Relationship Management tool] but in end it did not
meet all of them". Metawidget met all requirements because "it was compatible with GWT, could work
with XML, and could work dynamically". This was a validation of Metawidget's mixture of useful bounds
and runtime generation. They created a solution unlike any other available.
Were there scenarios where Metawidget was demonstrably worse than your usual techniques, or did not
represent a compelling advantage? If so, what would have helped tip the balance? The project manager
replied there were no demonstrably worse scenarios, but that "we think it would be nice to have
conditional fields, so that [a field's] behaviour would depend on the user selections from other fields".
Metawidget does support pluggable third-party expression languages for implementing conditional fields
for different environments. However it did not cater for the particular combination of front-end and
back-end this project chose. Specifically, Metawidget had no solution for client-side, browser-based (i.e.
ECMAScript) conditional fields using GWT. More work was needed there, though there was good
precedent for incorporating this kind of technology based on the other platforms. 4.3. Adaptability
How did you find Metawidget initially fit with your existing architecture? Were there parts that 'just
worked'? The team member responded: "As [I said] before, the use of Metawidget was somewhat
concrete and, where we used it, it did meet our requirements and worked. [On top of that] the code
was customised to include features not yet present at the time". There were two examples of such
customisation. The first was a custom inspector, CamposVariablesInspector. This was used to inspect
fragments of the XML response returned by the insurer Web service, as shown in figure 8. This was
different to Metawidget's standard inspectors, which generally inspected objects or whole XML
Figure 8: Health Portal uses a custom inspector
The second piece of customisation was a custom widget processor, CamposVariablesBinding. This both
extracted data values from the XML fragment and wrote them into the generated widgets, and also read
them back from the generated widget and inserted them into the XML fragment, as shown in figure 9.
Again this was different to Metawidget's standard binding, which bound data values to domain objects. Figure 9: Health Portal uses a custom widget processor
Were there areas where you had to write your own plugins, and if so how did you find writing them?
The project manager explained: "Being able to incorporate Metawidget within an existing UI was
important. It's fundamental for our project". Similarly to integrate with their existing back-end: "It was
important it supported our back-end. Being able to plug-in our back-end inspectors gave us the
flexibility needed, it is impossible for Metawidget to support everyone's requirements". The inverse of
this statement is that it is unrealistic to expect everyone to change their application to suit Metawidget's
requirements. This ability to integrate was so important, in fact, that the project manager summarised
"It was critical Metawidget supported both our front-end and back-end, otherwise we probably would
not have even tried it [for the Health Portal]".
Were there areas where Metawidget couldn't be made to fit? The team member couldn't recall any: "No,
where we used Metawidget it did fit". 4.4. Performance
How did your application compare, both in terms of speed and memory, before and after the
introduction of Metawidget? The team member replied: "In this case there was no before and after. No
alternatives to Metawidget were ever developed, it was included from the beginning". However the team
had encountered no performance problems, having deployed the Health Portal to thousands of clinics
Did you find the before and after reasonable in terms of the costs and benefits of UI generation? The
team member opined: "As [I said] before, there were no alternatives developed. However, we consider
the choice reasonable in terms of cost and benefits; it was really the only option that met our
requirements. If not, these requirements would have had to be changed. That would have meant less
flexibility to all the parties of the project. Of course, another option would have been to develop some
in-house solution similar to what Metawidget does, but that was never really an option considering the
costs and benefits". This validated that UI generation is conceptually a common problem (Kennard,
Leaney & Edmonds 2009) that calls for a general purpose solution rather than an in-house one. "[It] did
not add any business specific value if we could find a third-party solution that solved the same
In closing, I asked the project manager how he would sum up the team's experiences with Metawidget?
"Since we use [Metawidget] as a dynamic information capture tool, it gives us great flexibility towards
fulfilling customer requirements in record time. Even more of the information captured is almost as a
black box where our application does not apply any business rules, [letting] our customers [the insurers]
be the ones that define the business rules. Our application is a bridge between the user and our
customer, and from that point of view Metawidget fits our needs perfectly, since it allows us to offer the
customer [insurer] with a tool for him to decide and customise, without our help, the information that
needs to be captured from the user [clinic]".
This case study gathered responses that were pertinent to its qualitative metrics. In turn, these provided
an understanding of its four themes and validated its goal. The case study found industry developers
who had accepted, and successfully adopted, Metawidget for use in their application. At the time of
writing, the Telefónica Health Portal has been in production for several months and deployed to some
3,000 health clinics across Spain. This presents strong validation of industry applicability and developer
Basili, V. 1992, 'Software modeling and measurement: the Goal/Question/Metric paradigm'.
Kennard, R., Edmonds, E. & Leaney, J. 2009, Separation Anxiety: stresses of developing a modern day
Separable User Interface. 2nd International Conference on Human System Interaction.
Kennard, R. & Steele, R. 2008, Application of Software Mining to Automatic User Interface Generation.
7th International Conference on Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques.
Likert, R. A. 1932. 'A technique for the measurement of attitudes', Archives of Psychology, New York, No.
Appendix M: Continued Biology & Medicine Project No. Project Title Principal Investigator Subject Area: Biological Sciences Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Phototaxis and Settlement of BarnacleLarvae, in Relation to Cytological Changes in Larval EyesOrganochlorine Bioaccumulation from Coastal Sediments inRepresentative Hong Kong Benthic Invertebrates: Implications forToxicity Te
For Faces Almost Lost to History, a Chance to Speak The 19th and 20th centuries saw the invention of a lot of new ways to do away with people. But the same 200 years ensured that more people might be remembered, thanks to new recording devices, photography most of all. Many who might once have completely disappeared from view now leave behind visible traces of themselves. But what do these