logically derives from what one believes
the cause of the abnormal behavior to be.
Psychotherapy Psychotherapy and its goals goals of psychotherapy
achieving a cure for psychological problems
provide support and caring for those who seek help
Psychotherapy Where is psychotherapy done? Who goes to therapy? Catharsis Techniques Methods used to get at the unconscious free association dream analysis Manifest content The conscious, remembered aspects of a dream Latent content The unconscious, unremembered, symbolic aspects of a dream Interpretation of reactions interpretation of slips of the tongue brief psychodynamic therapy Behavior Therapies Classical conditioning methods extinction Systematic desensitization Flooding Exposure with response prevention Aversion therapy Covert sensitization Behavioral Therapies Instrumental conditioning token economy functional analysis behavioral contract Goal setting self-monitoring All-or-nothing thinking Overgeneralization Mental filter Discounting the positive Jumping to conclusions Magnification Emotional reasoning Shoulding on yourself Musterbation Labeling Personalization
Humanistic Therapy Client-centered therapy Carl Rogers Active listening Reflection Genuineness Empathic Understanding Unconditional Positive Regard Other types of therapy Gestalt therapy Eclecticism and Integration Group and family approaches to treatment The Good, The Bad and The Ugly on Prozac
10.2 BILLION dollars The Good, The Bad and The Ugly on Prozac The Good, The Bad and The Ugly on Prozac
No clear evidence that Prozac actually works
Brain changes with long-term use of Prozac
The Good, The Bad and The Ugly on Prozac
Looks like an amphetamine, smells like an amphetamine, acts like an amphetamine
Most effective with people who have intractable depression
Abnormal behavior will always be a part of our culture
A need to determine the most effective (in terms of time and cost) treatments
Even if we are unable to help an individual get "better" we have a responsibility that began, once again, with Hippocrates: "Do no more harm."
Azar, B. (1998, September). Lithium's mood-stabilizing effect is explained. APA Monitor, 39 (9), 8. Bickman, L. (1999). Practice makes perfect and other myths about mental health services. American Psychologist, 54(11), 965-978. Breggin, D. (19??). Talking back to prozac. Butler, S. (2002). Magnetic stimulation may be as effective as electroconvulsive therapy in treating severe depression. EurekAlert. [Online].
Retrieved February 1, 2002, from the world wide web: www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2002-01/uoia-msm012902.php
Foxhall, K. (2000). People today are more likely to see nonmedical professionals for mental health problems. Monitor on Psychology, 31 (8), 16. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. R., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H. U., & Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-
month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8-19.
Kirsch, I., & Sapirstein, G. (1998). Listening to prozac but hearing placebo: A meta-analysis of antidepressant medication. Prevention & Treatment,
Kramer, D. (1993). Listening to prozac. New York: Viking. Morrison, J. (1995). The first interview: Revised for DSM-IV. New York: The Guilford Press.
Murray, B. (1999, December). Cognitive-behavioral treatment efficiently combats anxiety, study finds. APA Monitor, 30(11), 8. Murray, B. (2000, January). Researchers find a way to forecast whether psychotherapy will help patients. APA Monitor on Psychology, 31(1), 14. Nairne, J. S. (1995). Psychology: The adaptive mind. Albany, NY: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Nairne, J. S. (1999). Psychology: The adaptive mind (2nd Ed.). Albany, NY: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Salovey, P., Rothman, A. J., Detweiler, J. B., & Steward, W. T. (2000). Emotional states and physical health. American Psychologist, 55(1), 110-
Schmitt, S. M. (1999). Criminalizing the menally ill. Counseling Today, 42(4), 1, 26. Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life. New York: Pocket Books. Seligman, M. E. P. (1998, May). The effectiveness of therapy. APA Monitor, 29 (5), 2. Tanouye, E. (2001, June 13). Mental illness: A rising workplace cost. Wall Street Journal. Tomes, H. (1999, December). Ignoring serious mental illness. APA Monitor, 30(11), 32.
Papeles de Ética, Economía y Dirección, nº 6, 2001 ___________________________________________________________________________________ LA ÉTICA Y LOS CONTROLES EN LAS EMPRESAS Julio Fernández-Sanguino Fernández Banco de España ___________________________________________________________________________________ Introducción Con frecuencia se pone de manifiesto que
New York-Presbyterian Pending approval by Subcommittee of Critical Care Therapeutics The University Hospitals of Columbia and Cornell Pending approval by Subcommittee of Formulary & Therapeutics Committee LAST UPDATED 5/5/10 GENERALIZED CONVULSIVE STATUS EPILEPTICUS TREATMENT ALGORITHM IN ADULTS There exists a lack of prospective controlled trials regarding the appropriate