Ministry of Defence Defence Standard 61-19 Issue 2 Publication Date 22 August 2003 Guidance to the Transportation, Storage, Handling and Disposal of Lithium Batteries. DEF STAN 61-19/ ISSUE 2 AMENDMENT RECORD Text Affected Signature and Date REVISION NOTE
The standard has been revised to update its content
HISTORICAL RECORD This standard supersedes the following:
Interim Defence Standard (Def Stan) 61-19 Issue 1 dated 20th March 1989. DEF STAN 61-19 Issue 2 Description DEF STAN 61-19/ ISSUE 2 Standards for Defence Guidance to the Transportation, Storage, Handling and Disposal of Lithium Batteries.
This standard provides the relevant information and procedures to promote the safe
handling of lithium batteries from acquisition to disposal.
This standard has been produced on behalf of the Defence Materiel Standardization
Committee (DMSC), by the Defence Battery Standardization Committee (DBSC), as there is nosuitable national or other standard, which is acceptable to the Ministry of Defence.
This standard has been agreed by the authorities concerned with its use and is intended
to be used whenever relevant in all future designs, contracts, orders etc. and wheneverpracticable by amendment to those already in existence. If any difficulty arises whichprevents application of this Defence Standard the UK Defence Standardization (DStan) shallbe informed so that a remedy may be sought.
Any enquiries regarding this standard in relation to an invitation to tender or a contract
in which it is incorporated are to be addressed to the responsible technical or supervisingauthority named in the invitation to tender or contract.
Compliance with this Defence Standard shall not in itself relieve any person from any
legal obligations imposed upon them.
This standard has been devised solely for the use of the Ministry of Defence (MOD)
and its contractors in the execution of contracts for the MOD. To the extent permitted bylaw, the MOD hereby excludes all liability whatsoever and howsoever arising (including,but without limitation, liability resulting from negligence) for any loss or damage howevercaused when the standard is used for any other purpose.
The sponsor of this standard is DPA ADRP3e. DEF STAN 61-19 Issue 2 Standards for Defence Guidance to the Transportation, Storage, Handling and Disposal of Lithium Batteries. SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS INTRODUCTION
Lithium cells and batteries are subject to legislation covering all phases of their use.
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on Lithium Battery issues and wherethe regulations are defined.
Lithium batteries are widely used in many types of equipment in the MOD. A wide
variety of chemical systems, cell shapes and sizes are available. All lithium batteries andinstallations incorporating lithium batteries are encompassed within UN Dangerous GoodsClassifications and allied transport regulations, which impose constructional, packaging andlabelling requirements.
This standard is intended for use by MOD and Industry.
This standard may be invoked directly by a MOD invitation to tender, contract or
referenced by other MOD battery specifications.
This standard applies to all rechargeable and non-rechargeable batteries containing
lithium or lithium ions, both as single items and when contained in items of equipment. Thermal batteries may fall into a different classification within the relevant UN documentsand further clarification should be sort.
The Ministry of Defence (MOD), like its contractors, is subject to both United Kingdom andEuropean laws regarding Health and Safety at Work, without exemption. All DefenceStandards either directly or indirectly invoke the use of processes and procedures that couldbe injurious to health if adequate precautions are not taken. Defence Standards or their usein no way absolves users from complying with statutory and legal requirements relating toHealth and Safety at Work. DEF STAN 61-19/ ISSUE 2 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS RELATED DOCUMENTS
The publications shown below are referred to in the text of this standard.
Publications are grouped and listed in alphanumeric order. These documents are subject tofrequent change and or amendments. Designation
Supply of Hazardous Articles and Substances
The Selection and Introduction of Batteries for Service Use
Materiel Regulations forArmy Vol1 Pamphlet7
www.detr.gov.ukEland HouseBressendon PlaceLondonSW1E 5DU
www.dti.gov.ukEnquiry Unit1 Victoria StreetLondonSW1H 0ET
www.hse.gov.ukHSE InfolineCaerphilly Business ParkCaerphillyCF83 3GG
Reference in this standard to any related document means in any invitation to
tender or contract the edition and all amendments current at the date of such tender orcontract unless a specific edition is indicated.
In consideration of 3.2 above, users shall be fully aware of the issue and
amendment status of all related documents, particularly when forming part of an invitationto tender or contract. Responsibility for the correct application of standards rests with users. DEF STAN 61-19 Issue 2 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
DStan can advise regarding where related documents are obtained from. Requests
for such information can be made to the DStan Helpdesk. How to contact the helpdesk isshown on the outside rear cover of Def Stans. DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this standard the following definitions apply:
Mandatory Clauses in Defence Standards.
Defined as clauses that use the word “shall”. Optional or non-mandatory clauses use theword “should”. Standard Sponsor.
Defined as the MOD sponsor for the preparation of a Defence Standard. ABBREVIATIONS Designation
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Defence Battery Standardization Committee
DEF STAN 61-19/ ISSUE 2 SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS CONTRACTUAL ISSUES
All contracts for supply of lithium cells or batteries shall include the requirements
of DEFCON 68 (Supply of Hazardous Articles and Substances) and DEFCON 129(Packaging). These shall also be applied to contracts covering the supply of any equipmentthat contains or is supplied with lithium cells or batteries.
Lithium cells and batteries are designated by the UN as Dangerous Goods, within
the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations. Consequently some products require assessment and testing to demonstrate compliance withconstructional and performance requirements. All supplied products shall comply with therelevant constructional, performance, packaging and labelling requirements of the civildangerous goods transport regulations governing land, sea and air modes of transport. Except where specified in the contract or excluded in the regulations, this shall includerequirements for carriage on mixed passenger and cargo aircraft.
The specific battery Def Stan 61-21 supplement or contract shall specify the packaging levels that require marking and any additional information required as part of the product or package labelling
In addition to the high energy density. There are hazards with the constituents of
these cells/batteries. Many cell variants are pressurised and may forcibly eject material ifventing occurs. The lithium anodes are flammable, burn vigorously and react violently withwater. Electrolytes often contain strong oxidising, reducing agents or organic salts that aredissolved in flammable organic liquids. Cathode materials may either be liquid, gaseous orsolid. These materials are often highly toxic and can be irritant to eyes, skin and respiratorytract. Specific details on the hazards associated with individual products is contained withinthe MOD Hazardous Stores Information System (HSIS) and associated Safety Data Sheets.
Whilst some of the hazards are common to most cells and batteries, the specific
hazard will depend on the chemistry, design of the product and its condition i.e. its state ofcharge. Electrical, physical or mechanical abuse may cause the release of the cell or batterycontents possibly with spontaneous ignition or explosive consequences. BATTERY SELECTION
The policy for the introduction and selection of lithium batteries in Defence
equipment is given in Def Stan 61-17. DEF STAN 61-19 Issue 2 SECTION 2 TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE, HANDLING AND DISPOSAL REQUIREMENTS TRANSPORT
Regulations vary depending on the mode of transport and the type of battery to be transported. Mode specific regulations can be found at the web sites referenced in Clause 3. TRANSPORTATION OF UNSERVICEABLE ITEMS
Some Dangerous Goods Transport Regulations for Land and Sea do not distinguish between serviceable, unserviceable and defective items. Therefore they may, need further clarification from the regulatory authorities, see Clause 3. However for Air transport, serviceability criteria may apply. PACKAGING
The packing must comply with the appropriate regulations and be adequate to avoid
mechanical damage during transport, handling and stacking. The materials and pack designmust be chosen so as to prevent the development of unintentional electrical conduction,corrosion of the terminals and ingress of moisture
Batteries must be packed for transport in such a way that the batteries will not be
short- circuited, inter-connected or damaged during transport. Regulations vary dependingon the mode of transport and the type of battery to be transported. Any additional packagingrequirements in the following sections shall be assessed.
Packaging shall not be removed until the battery is used. LABELLING
In the absence of any specific contract requirements, and in addition to the
regulatory requirements, the following additional information shall appear on the primarypackaging and all subsequent layers of packaging;
‘LITHIUM BATTERY’ (in block capitals)
Manufacturers name (preferably) or identification
‘CAUTION: NEVER CHARGE, SHORT CIRCUIT, PUNCTURE,DEFORM OR INCINERATE’ (delete ‘CHARGE’ if the battery is arechargeable type) (in block capitals)
Unless otherwise stated, a yellow triangle black edged and of side no shorter than 20mm,and containing the words ‘LITHIUM BATTERY’ in black, bold capitals
DEF STAN 61-19/ ISSUE 2 SECTION 2 TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE, HANDLING AND DISPOSAL REQUIREMENTS DELIVERY
All phases of delivery shall comply with the relevant dangerous goods regulations
as required. Care must be taken to ensure that packaging and labelling requirements are notcompromised by inspection, acceptance of goods or onward conveyance.
All deliveries shall be accompanied with the relevant Health and Safety data
together with an indication of conformance with the applicable regulations.
Batteries should be stored in a well-ventilated, dry and cool condition. High
temperature or high humidity may cause deterioration of the battery performance or surfacecorrosion.
When batteries are stored they should not be exposed to direct sun rays for a long
time or placed in areas where they can get wet by rain. When batteries get wet, theirinsulation resistance decreases, self-discharge may occur and rust may be generated.
The storage area should be dry, well ventilated and should have a minimum one-
hour fire capability. Humidity or temperature control will not be necessary in most cases. Exposure to temperatures above +50°C should be avoided and in no circumstances shouldtemperatures exceed +70°C. Lithium batteries should be segregated by type with theminimum level of packaging. All pallets, shelving and supports on which batteries are stoodshould be of non-flammable material, and the store shall be clearly identified as containingflammable materials.
Persons responsible for the storage of lithium batteries should be aware of the
relevant COSHH data and manufactures guidelines for the product and any local authority,national regulations and procedures. HANDLING
Persons responsible for the transport, handling, storage and disposal of lithium
batteries should be aware of the relevant COSHH data and manufactures guidelines for theproduct.
Do not handle battery cartons roughly. When battery cartons are handled roughly, thebatteries may be dented or distorted and thus their performance is deteriorated, or batteriesmay leak. When battery cartons are damaged and many batteries are mixed together, theymay be short-circuited or damaged by heat, or leak, explode and/or ignite. DEF STAN 61-19 Issue 2 SECTION 2 TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE, HANDLING AND DISPOSAL REQUIREMENTS DISPOSAL
Prompt disposal of discharged and end of life cells and batteries is recommended as
the hazards detailed in 7.1 still apply.
Persons responsible for the disposal of lithium batteries should be aware of the
relevant COSHH data for the product and any local authority, national regulations andprocedures.
The disposal of lithium batteries by the MOD shall be in accordance with the
Inside Rear Cover Crown Copyright 2003 Copying Only as Agreed with DStan
Defence Standards are Published by and Obtainable from:
An Executive Agency of The Ministry of Defence
DStan Helpdesk File Reference
The DStan file reference relating to work on this standard is D/DStan/61/19. Contract Requirements
When Defence Standards are incorporated into contracts users are responsible for theircorrect application and for complying with contractual and statutory requirements. Compliance with a Defence Standard does not in itself confer immunity from legalobligations. Revision of Defence Standards
Defence Standards are revised as necessary by up issue or amendment. It is important thatusers of Defence Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest issue oramendment. Information on all Defence Standards is contained in Def Stan 00-00 Standardsfor Defence Part 3 , Index of Standards for Defence Procurement Section 4 ‘Index ofDefence Standards and Defence Specifications’ published annually and supplementedregularly by Standards in Defence News (SID News). Any person who, when making use ofa Defence Standard encounters an inaccuracy or ambiguity is requested to notify theDirectorate of Standardization (DStan) without delay in order that the matter may beinvestigated and appropriate action taken.
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